When white Mormon pioneers arrived in Utah, they encountered Shoshoni, Ute, and Paiute natives. This article draws upon Mormon records as well as interviews of natives who knew the old ways. Family and social structure was fluid; native childhood looked permissive to the Mormons. Women had some say in choosing a marriage partner. The article looks at lifestyle during stages of life, marriage, vocational roles, intercultural adaptation, and the social status of women.