In 1975, Cambridge's George Steiner published After Babel. That book, now in its third edition, is considered a classic for several reasons. For translation scholars, however, After Babel's principal contribution is that it legitimized translation studies as a discrete academic field rather than as a mere appendage to comparative literature, linguistics, or language works. Shortly after Steiner's work was published, two other influential works on translation appeared: Louis Kelly's The True Interpreter (1979) and Susan Bassnett-McGuire's Translation Studies (1980). Together, these three works provided a historical and theoretical foundation on which translation scholars could build.