Aftermath of the Prophet’s Release from Arrest—Fourth of July Celebration at Nauvoo—Appeals to Governor Ford for Employment of Military Force—Supplementary Affidavit on Affairs in Missouri.
Sunday July 2, 1843.—A large congregation met at the Grove, near the Temple, and heard an interesting address from Elder Orson Hyde. After he closed, Messrs. Walker, Southwick, Patrick, and Wasson spoke on the stand, stating that I had subjected myself to the law in every particular, and had treated my persecutors and kidnappers with courtesy and kindness. They also spoke on the unlawful conduct of my enemies.
Messrs. Patrick, Walker, Southwick, and Harmon Wasson made the following affidavit:—
Shepherd G. Patrick, Harmon Wasson, Edward Southwick, and Cyrus Walker, being duly sworn, depose and say that they were in company with Joseph R. Reynolds and Harmon T. Wilson, the former acting as agent of the state of Missouri, and having in custody Joseph Smith, who was styled, in the warrant by which he had been arrested. Joseph Smith, Jr.; and who had been delivered into the custody of said Reynolds by said Wilson, who had first, as an officer of the state of Illinois, arrested him, the said Smith, upon a warrant issued by his Excellency Thomas Ford, to apprehend him as a fugitive from the justice of the state of Missouri, when it was alleged he was charged with treason against the said state of Missouri; that the arrest and transfer of the custody of said Smith took place in Lee county, Illinois; and that while said Joseph H. Reynolds was at Dixon, in said county, a writ of habeas corpus was served on him, in behalf of said Smith, commanding him to bring said Smith before the nearest judge or judicial tribunal in the fifth judicial district of the state of Illinois, authorized to hear and determine upon writs of habeas corpus; that said Harmon T. Wilson acted as a guard and assistant under said Joseph H. Reynolds on their journey from Dixon, till they arrived at the city of Nauvoo; that said Smith was allowed by said Reynolds to ride his horse and in a buggy on said journey, while the said Reynolds rode in the coach, upon the assurance and pledge of James Campbell, Esq., the sheriff of Lee county, Illinois, who had said Reynolds and Wilson in custody for want of bail in a civil action, and upon whom they had served habeas corpus, returnable before Judge Young at Quincy, Illinois.
Your affiants as well as others in the company, at the same time gave assurance and pledges to said Reynolds that his prisoner, the said Smith, should not escape from him; and the said Reynolds was satisfied, as he avowed, with the pledges aforesaid, and expressed himself to be so at the time, and fully consented that the said Smith might travel on said journey in the manner he did.
That the friends of said Smith met him in great numbers as he approached the city of Nauvoo, by which place the sheriff, as these affiants believe, voluntarily decided to go at the request of said Smith, and upon representations made to him that it was the best route to Quincy.
That no violence was offered to said Reynolds or Wilson; and that to the best of these affiants’ knowledge and belief, no threats or intimidation were made use of to influence and control their conduct, either during the journey to or after their arrival at Nauvoo. Said Reynolds and Wilson dined with said Smith at his own house, and were hospitably entertained; and after dinner, say in two hours after the arrival of the party in said city, a writ of habeas corpus was issued by the municipal court of the said city of Nauvoo in favor of said Smith, which was served upon said Reynolds.
The said Reynolds made return of the writ, together with the body of said Smith, and alleged the causes of his capture and detention, at the same time denying the jurisdiction of the court, and alleging that he had been served with the prior writ of habeas corpus before mentioned. Said Reynolds remained in Nauvoo, and a part of the time in the municipal court-room, and sometime after the examination of the writ of habeas corpus issued by the municipal court had commenced, and, as your affiants believe, during the whole sitting of the court on Friday afternoon, the 30th of June, and then departed for Carthage, after a patient examination of the fact and matter of law set forth in complainant’s petition, which said examination lasted from Friday afternoon till the next day, Saturday, at night. The said Smith was discharged as for defects in the warrant under which he had been arrested, and was imprisoned, as upon the merits of the case by the said municipal court; and these affiants further say that said Reynolds and Wilson were, before they arrived at the city of Nauvoo, and while they were there, assured by the said Smith and many of the company who had traveled together from Dixon, (these affiants among the number,) that they should be protected from violence; and that the said Smith did publicly declare in Nauvoo, to the people there assembled, that his honor was pledged that said Reynolds should be protected from violence, and requested every one to preserve his pledge inviolate.
These affiants state further that no violence or threats, to their knowledge or belief, were made use of towards the said Reynolds or the said Wilson, either before or after their arrival at Nauvoo; but the numbers who met and accompanied the said Smith and his escort on the journey, conducted themselves in an orderly and peaceable manner, and manifested only their attachment to said Smith, and joy to find him safe in the custody of the laws of the state of Illinois; all of which facts are true, to the best of the knowledge and recollection of the affiants.
Shepherd G. Patrick,
Sworn to, etc.
Colonel Markham, Mr. Sanger, and myself also made affidavits on the same subject.
Judge Adams came from Carthage and stated that Wilson and Reynolds were inciting the people to mobocracy, and sending a petition to Governor Ford for a posse to retake me.
A petition to the governor, praying him not to issue any more writs, was immediately made out, and signed by about 150 citizens of Nauvoo; and also—
A remonstrance against the Carthage proceedings was gotten up. Signed and forwarded the same to Carthage by Messrs. Southwick and Patrick.
I directed the clerk to make a transcript of the proceedings before the municipal court, to forward to the governor, and to which he attached the following certificate:—
I, James Sloan, Clerk of the Municipal Court of the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, do hereby certify that the foregoing hereunto attached papers and documents—to wit, that the foregoing petition of Joseph Smith, Sen., and warrant from the governor of the state of Illinois, and commission issued by Thomas Reynolds, governor of the state of Missouri, to Joseph H. Reynolds, and the writ of habeas corpus, and the return of the said Joseph H. Reynolds thereto, and endorsed thereon, are true copies of the papers and originals filed in this court, in the exparte case of Joseph Smith, Sen., upon the petition of said Smith, for a discharge from arrest on habeas corpus; and that the foregoing is a true copy of the true, full, and perfect record of the proceedings had in said case.
In witness whereof. I have hereunto set my hand, and affixed the seal of said court. at the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, this third day of July, A.D., 1843.[L. S.] James Sloan,
Clerk of the Municipal Court
of the city of Nauvoo, Illinois.
He also made a transcript of the ordinances relating to habeas corpus, and attached the following certificate:—
I, James Sloan, city recorder of the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, and clerk of the city council of said city, do hereby certify that the fore-going hereunto attached are true copies of the ordinances of said city, regulating the proceedings on writs of habeas corpus, the one passed the 8th day of August, A.D., 1842, and the other passed November 14, 1842, both of which said ordinances are unrepealed and now in force in said city.
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed the corporate seal of said city of Nauvoo at said city, this 3rd day of July, A.D., 1843.[L. S.] James Sloan,
City Recorder and Clerk of the City Council
of the city of Nauvoo, Illinois.
Which documents were delivered to my lawyers, with instructions to see Governor Ford immediately.
I had an interview with several Pottawattamie chiefs, who came to see me during my absence.
The Indian chiefs remained at Nauvoo until the Prophet returned and had his trial. During their stay they had a talk with Hyrum Smith in the basement of the Nauvoo House. Wilford Woodruff and some others were present. They were not free to talk, and did not wish to communicate their feelings until they could see the great Prophet.
At length, on the 2nd day of July, 1843, President Joseph Smith and several of the Twelve met those chiefs in the court-room, with about twenty of the elders. The following is a synopsis of the conversation which took place as given by the interpreter:—
The Indian orator arose and asked the Prophet if the men who were present were all his friends. Answer—”Yes.”
He then said—”We as a people have long been distressed and oppressed. We have been driven from our lands many times. We have been wasted away by wars, until there are but few of us left. The white man has hated us and shed our blood, until it has appeared as though there would soon be no Indians left. We have talked with the Great Spirit, and the Great Spirit has talked with us. We have asked the Great Spirit to save us and let us live; and the Great Spirit has told us that he had raised up a great Prophet, chief, and friend, who would do us great good and tell us what to do; and the Great Spirit has told us that you are the man (pointing to the Prophet Joseph). We have now come a great way to see you, and hear your words, and to have you to tell us what to do. Our horses have become poor traveling, and we are hungry. We will now wait and hear your word.”
The Spirit of God rested upon the Lamanites, especially the orator. Joseph was much affected and shed tears. He arose and said unto them: “I have heard your words. They are true. The Great Spirit has told you the truth. I am your friend and brother, and I wish to do you good. Your fathers were once a great people. They worshiped the Great Spirit. The Great Spirit did them good. He was their friend; but they left the Great Spirit, and would not hear his words or keep them. The Great Spirit left them, and they began to kill one another, and they have been poor and afflicted until now.
The Great Spirit has given me a book, and told me that you will soon be blessed again. The Great Spirit will soon begin to talk with you and your children. This is the book which your fathers made. I wrote upon it (showing them the Book of Mormon). This tells what you will have to do. I now want you to begin to pray to the Great Spirit. want you to make peace with one another, and do not kill any more Indians: it is not good. Do not kill white men; it is not good; but ask the Great Spirit for what you want, and it will not be long before the Great Spirit will bless you, and you will cultivate the earth and build good houses like white men. We will give you something to eat and to take home with you.”
When the Prophet’s words were interpreted to the chiefs, they all said it was good. The chief asked, “How many moons would it be before the Great Spirit would bless them?” He [Joseph] told them, Not a great many.
At the close of the interview, Joseph had an ox killed for them, and they were furnished with some more horses, and they went home satisfied and contented.
Return of the Maid of Iowa Relief Expedition.
About six p.m., the Maid of Iowa returned to her landing at the Nauvoo House. The company who had been on the expedition on board of her formed in a procession and walked up to my office, where they formed a hollow square, and sent in a deputation to me. As soon as I had bid them welcome, I opened the window of my office and requested that no man would leave the ground until I had spoken to them. My brother Hyrum and I went into the hollow square and directed them not to allow their ranks to be broken. I then shook hands with each man, blessing them and welcoming them home.
I then took off my hat and related to them how I was brought home to the midst of my friends, and how I regained my liberty. I feel, by the Spirit of the Lord, that if I had fallen into your hands that you would either have brought me safe home, or that we should all have died in a heap together.
At this time, a well dressed man, a stranger, who had a cloak around him, broke through the south line of the ranks, when the orderly sergeant took the stranger by the nape of the neck and kicked him outside the ranks, telling him not to come in again. As soon as quiet was resumed, I continued my address to the company.
About dusk I dismissed the company, blessing them in the name of the Lord.
My brother Hyrum then blessed them also, commending them for their dilIgence and attention to the instructions given by him before their departure.
The following is the report of their doings, as reported by Daniel M. Burbanks :
Burbanks’ Account of the Maid of Iowa Expedition for the Prophet’s Relief.
Sunday, June 25.—The brethren were collecting through the night on the Maid of Iowa, and commenced making preparations for the trip, all hands uniting in loading the boat with firewood.
26th.—About half-past eight a.m., President Hyrum Smith, in company with Judge Adams, came on board and instructed us to watch for the steamboats that may run up the Illinois river; and if any persons were running Brother Joseph down the river, under any pretext whatever, as the Amaranth had carried the news to Missouri that Joseph Smith was going to be tried at Ottawa, and it had been reported that a company of men were armed in St. Louis and had chartered a steamboat to run up to Ottawa, there to seize Joseph and kidnap him to Missouri;—and if we saw such a boat, we were to rescue Joseph, at all hazards and bring him to Nauvoo
President Hyrum then blessed the company in the name of the Lord, and the Little Maid started at a quarter-past nine a.m., down the Mississippi river, with the following persons on board—namely, Dan Jones, Captain of boat; Daniel M. Burbanks, first Pilot; Dimick B. Huntington, Mate; Jonathan Dunham, Captain of Company; George W. Langley, Lieutenant; John Taylor, Chaplain; John M. Bernhisel, Surgeon; John S. Higbee, Isaac Higbee, Lucius N. Scovil, Enoch M. King, Lewis Dunbar Wilson, Whitford G. Wilson, Bushrod W. Wilson, John Bair, Ben Rolfe, Sylvester B. Stoddard, James Aikin, Elijah Averett, Levi W. Hancock, William Meeks, Calvin Reed, Robert C. Moore, Levi Stewart, Urban V. Stewart, Allen Stout, Welcome Chapman, William S. Yocum, Thomas Briley, Henry J. Young, James Worthington, George W. Thatcher, H. M. Alexander, Elbridge Tufts, Benjamin L. Clapp, Joseph C. Kingsbury, A. Young, John Fido, John Murdoch., John Lytle, Thomas Carrico, E. J. Sabin, Daniel Avory, H. B. M. Jolley, J. F. Lane, J. H. Holmes, H. P. Palmer, Benjamin Jones, Robert C. Egbert, Tarlton Lewis, R. A. Allred, J. Foutz, H. Permain, John Binby, George W. Rosecran, and about twenty-five others whose names are not reported.
At nine p.m., the boat turned the point of the bend and started up the Illinois river. She did not stop until opposite Diamond Isle, about four o’clock on Tuesday morning, 27th, where the company learned that the Chicago Belle had passed up the Illinois river the day previous with a large company of men, having a swivel gun on the forecastle, as they said, with the intention of taking Joseph Smith, at all hazards, and conveying him to Missouri.
The Maid next hailed at the Erie landing, five miles above Beardstown, where they were told that the Belle was twelve hours ahead, and the company on board had left word that if the Maid of Iowa followed, they would send the “Mormon” boat and crew, with Jo Smith, to hell. The people advised the company on the Maid to return. Stayed there half-an-hour to take in wood, and then continued our journey.
Wednesday, 18th.—At an hour before daybreak, passed Pekin, and the Chicago Belle aground in an island chute. When she saw us coming she backed her star-board wheel and blocked up the passage.
When the pilot of the Maid came near, he stopped his engine and hailed them with his speaking trumpet, requesting a passage. They inquired, “What boat is that?” and were told, the Maid of Iowa. They replied, “You cannot pass, and we will see you all d—d and in hell first.” The pilot saw a little opening in the willows of about twelve feet wide on her left, and signaled for the engineer to put on aIl steam, and drove her through this narrow channel and a small tow head about five rods, tearing the willows down on each side with the guards and wheelhouse, the captain crying out all the time, “Stop her!—stop her! For God’s sake, stop her! You will smash the boat in pieces!”
When the boat had headed round the Belle, and was once more in deep water, the pilot stopped the engine and asked the captain, “What is the matter?” The captain was afraid, and said, “My God, you will smash the boat to pieces,” and was answered, “All is safe, and we will go ahead,” leaving the Belle still aground in the channel.
Then went to Peoria, about ten miles; found Jesse P. Harmon and Alanson Ripley, who had come from the horsemen with an express instructing the company to proceed to the mouth of Fox River. We took them on board and proceeded on our way.
Thursday, 29th.—Arrived at Peru, at ten a.m. There met William F. Lane with an express from Charles C. Rich, reporting that the company who had Joseph in charge had started from Fox River for Shokoquon, destined to run him through the Iowa territory by that route, and then into Missouri, as they had learned their way by the Illinois river was blocked up by the Maid of Iowa, and for the boat and company to return to Quincy, and there await further orders. We immediately turned round, and on arriving at the mouth of Spoon River, landed Ripley and Harmon, with instructions to pursue their journey by land to Nauvoo.
About one p.m., again overhauled the Chicago Belle at the Grand Pass while they were wooding. They hailed us to inquire “If old Jo was on board,” and were answered, “It is none of your business,” when another man on the hurricane deck of the Belle shouted, “Hurrah, hurrah for old Jo Smith!”
We continued our journey and again arrived at the Mississippi at nine p.m. In rounding to, broke the tiller rope and came to an anchor; repaired the same, and then continued up the Mississippi.
Arrived at the island below Quincy about eight p.m., on Friday, 30th, when John Taylor, Jonathan Dunham, Dan Jones, George W. Langley, and Daniel M. Burbanks took the yawl and went up to Quincy to learn the news and see if there was any excitement. They found all peace, then returned to the boat, got up steam, and went up to Quincy, landing about midnight.
Saturday, July 1st.—About eight a.m., left Quincy, after steaming about eight miles. Sidney Roberts and another messenger came in a skiff with a letter from Hyrum, saying that Joseph had arrived in Nauvoo, and was going to be tried before the municipal court, and for us to hurry home as quick as possible.
On reaching Keokuk, the engineer, Benjamin Orum (who was not a member of the Church) got dead drunk, when the first pilot turned engineer, and the second pilot took the wheel and run the boat over the rapids to Nauvoo,
Application for Posse to Retake the Prophet.
Colonel Markham returned from Carthage in the evening, and reported that on his arriving at Carthage, he found that Reynolds and Wilson had filed their affidavits, that he (Markham) had with armed force taken Joseph Smith out of their hands at the head of Elleston Grove, and that they had also got up a petition, which was signed by the inhabitants of Carthage, and sent it to Governor Ford by the hands of Reynolds and Wilson, requesting him to raise a posse comitatus, and they would come to Nauvoo and take me. They were to start by the mail early this morning; and Markham requested Jacob Backenstos to go with the mail to Governor Ford and request him to suspend all proceedings until documents would be got to show the true state of the case.
On going to the stage proprietor, he engaged and paid for a passage for one man. On their finding who was going, Reynolds and Wilson objected to his going; and that objection was accepted by the stage proprietor, although he had received the passage money. The proprietor then hired a horse from Mr. Hamilton for him [Markham] to ride.
Monday, July 3.—I directed the Twelve Apostles to call a special conference to choose elders to go into the different counties of Illinois to preach the gospel and disabuse the public mind with regard to my arrest.
Elders Brigham Young, Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, John Taylor, George A. Smith, Wilford Woodruff, and Willard Richards met at the Grove with the elders, and it was decided that the following elders go on a special mission to the following counties in the state of Illinois:
List of Special Missionaries.
Elijah Reed and Jesse Hitchcock, Adams and Pike; Salmon Warner and Jeremiah Curtis, Calhoun and Jersey; Erastus H. Derby, Orson Hyde, and George J. Adams, Lee; Charles C. Rich and Harvey Green, La Salle and De Calb; Levi Richards, Luther A. Jones, and E. Robinson, Joe Davis; John Murdock, Vermillion; Daniel Avery, Schuyler; Zebedee Coltrin, McDonough; Truman Gillet, Benjamin Brown, and Jesse W. Crosby, Cook; Graham Coltrin, Fulton; John L. Butler, Hamilton; David Lewis, Wayne; James Twist, Bureau; George P. Dykes and Samuel Brown, St. Clair; Pardon Webb, Will; E. M. Webb, Grundy; Simeon Dunn, Warren; H. S. Eldredge, Mason; Thomas Dobson, Tazewell; Cyrus Canfield, Menard; Jared Carter, Morgan; Samuel James and J. C. Wright, Scott; Luman H. Calkins, White; J. M. King, Mercer; Daniel Allen, Rock Island; U. C. Nickerson, Henry; Alfred Brown, Putnam; Priddy Meeks, McCoupin; Abel Butterfield and J. H. Van Natta, Winnebago; William Nelson, Iroquois; Samuel Russell, Boone; Levi Stewart, Franklin; William Meeks, Green; W. B. Brink and George Chamberlin, Sangamon; Jacob Wiley, Edwards; William S. Covert, Stark; M. F. Bartlett and Melvin Wilbur, Bond; John Outhouse, Alexander; Cheney G. Van Buren, Brown; James Carroll, Carroll; David Jones, Fayette; John Lowry, Munroe; Urban V. Stewart, Williamson; James McFate, Montgomery; Lyman O. Littlefield, Clinton; Elisha H. Groves, Madison; Theodore Curtis, Cass; Samuel Keele, Jefferson; James Hale, Washington; George W. Thatcher and John A. Forgeus, Hancock; Jacob H. Butterfield, Henderson; George Middah, Clay; James M. Munroe, Crawford; Ezra Chase, Coles; Jesse Chase, Edgar; Amos Lewell, Clark; John Miller, Whitesides; William Martin Christian; Reuben Parkhurst, De Witt; John Keele, Perry; George W. Langley, Johnson; James M. Henderson, Gallatin; James W. Cummings, Randolph; John Workman, Shelby; Elijah Fordham, Knox; George W. Pitkin and John Wakefield, Peoria.
Brigham Young, President.
W. Richards, Clerk.
About noon, General Charles C. Rich, with twenty-five men, returned, formed a square in front of my house, and sang a new song. I went out, shook hands with each individual, and blessed them in the name of the Lord. The following is a report of their expedition:
Report of Relief Expedition Led by Charles C. Rich.
The detachment left the main body of the camp and started from McQueen’s Mills about one a.m., on Monday, the 26th of June, under the command of General Rich, as follows:—C. C. Rich, Hosea Stout, John Pack, Truman R. Barlow, James W. Cummings, Daniel Carnes, Jesse P. Harmon, Alanson Ripley, Stephen Abbott, Charles W. Hubbard, A. L. Fullmer, Joel E. Terry, Alfred Brown, Dr. Josiah Ells, William Edwards, Thomas Woolsey, Osmon M. Duel, Dr. Samuel Bennett,—Babcock, Isaiah Whitesides, Jesse B. Nichols, Stephen Wilkinson, Samuel Gulley, and four or five others, on horses, with one baggage wagon drawn by two horses, with instructions to proceed to Peoria, there cross the Illinois river, and then proceed up the east side of the river on the main stage road leading from Springfield to Ottawa. We traveled till about three o’clock in the morning, when we halted for about an hour and put out a guard. At daybreak we again took up the line of march, and traveled through the day, mostly without a road, and the following night till near daybreak of the 27th, and again made a halt for an hour and passed through Ellesville before sunrise. When going through that village, the people were opening their shops, and many persons came in their shirts to the windows.
Dr. Ells and J. W. Cummings were behind the company about six rods, when one man came running, full of anxiety, and inquired, “Where in the world are you all going to?” Dr. Ells, who carried a very sanctified face, drawled out, “We’re a-hunting a wheelbarrow’s nest;” after which, we again resumed the march, about noon halted on the Kic-a-poo creek, and sent Hosea Stout and A. L. Fullmer to Peoria to see Lawyer Charles C. Ballance and obtain what information they could get from him; and about two p.m., crossed the Illinois river at Peoria, where we obtained supplies for our further journey. Here we left Jesse P. Harmon and Alanson Ripley with instructions to hail the steamer Maid of Iowa, and procure what information they had of the whereabouts of Brother Joseph Smith.
The company after crossing the river, proceeded nearly due east, till they intersected the stage road running from Springfield to Ottawa, at a small town named Washington, ten miles east of Peoria. There we stopped for about an hour and fed our horses. At dusk we again resumed the march on the stage road towards Ottawa, and traveled about ten miles to Black Partridge Point, and camped for the night.
At daybreak of the 28th, we were on the march, traveled about 35 miles to the little town of Magnolia, and halted for noon, where we fed ourselves and animals at the public house of Captain William Haws (the captain of a company in which Hosea Stout served in the Black Hawk war). We again resumed the march, and about dark camped about two miles below Ottawa, near the Illinois river, having traveled over 206 miles in two days and eighteen hours with the same horses, which had become very tired.
General Rich left the company about an hour before sunset, and about dusk crossed the Illinois river into Ottawa, and put up at Brother Sanger’s. There he learned positively that Joseph had come as far as Pawpaw Grove, where he was informed that Judge Caton was absent, and had returned to Dixon and obtained another writ of habeas corpus, and had started in the direction of Quincy, Adams county; and also that Lucien P. Sanger had taken his stage-coach to convey Brother Joseph to Quincy. When he had obtained this information, he left orders for the Maid of Iowa to return with all speed to Quincy.
Early on the morning of the 29th, General Rich returned to his company and gave them the information, when the company started on their return for Nauvoo, came as far as Captain Haws’, and stayed all night. He gave us the use of the barn to sleep in. In conversing with the citizens of Magnolia, they approbated our course, manifested a warm feeling, and offered to help us with their artillery company, if we needed their assistance.
On the 30th we made a direct course for the Narrows, four miles above Peoria, where we recrossed the Illinois river, and camped near the town.
1st July. We traveled forty miles and camped on a small creek near a farmhouse, where the entire company had an abundance of milk for the night.
July 2nd. Early in the morning, Jesse B. Nichols went into the village of Gallsburg, waked up a blacksmith, and employed him to set a couple of horse-shoes. The blacksmith objected, saying it was Sunday morning, and, being a professor of religion, he would not do it unless for double price, which Nichols consented to give him. He went to the shop; and whilst setting the shoes, the company passed through, exciting considerable curiosity among the villagers. Two of the brethren remained to accompany Nichols. As he was about paying the blacksmith for the work, a Presbyterian minister came up and said to him, “You ought to charge a dollar a shoe. These are Mormons; and you, who are a church member, have been shoeing this Mormon’s horse on Sunday; and you ought to be brought before the church for doing it.” Upon which, the blacksmith demanded two dollars for his work instead of one as agreed before. Nichols handed him one dollar, the priest telling the blacksmith he ought not to take it—that Joe Smith was an impostor, and ought to be hung. The son of Vulcan, however, took the dollar, but demanded more; upon which Nichols mounted his horse and left, amid the loud cheers of a number of spectators.
We continued our journey to La Harpe, where we learned the full particulars of Brother Joseph’s safe arrival and trial before the municipal court, when we made merry, composed a song, and danced, and proceeded to Nauvoo.
During the entire journey the heat was extremely oppressive; and as the necessity of the case was very urgent, we had not time to sleep. It may be safely said to be one of the most rapid, fatiguing marches that is on record, having traveled with the same horses about 500 miles in seven days.
Another copy of the remonstrance to the governor against his sending an armed force was made out and taken to the porch of the Temple, where it was signed in the course of the day by about 900 persons.
Tuesday, 4.—About one a.m., Messrs. Walker, Patrick, Southwick, Markham, and Lucien Woodworth started for Springfield, carrying with them the affidavits, petition, and the doings of the municipal court.
Fourth of July Celebration at Nauvoo.
At a very early hour people began to assemble at the Grove, and at eleven o’clock near 13,000 persons had congregated, and were addressed in a very able and appropriate manner by Elder Orson Hyde, who has recently been appointed on a mission to St. Petersburg, Russia.
A constant accession of numbers swelled the congregation to 15,000 as near as could be estimated.
At two p.m., they were again addressed by Elder Parley P. Pratt on redemption, in a masterly discourse, when I made some remarks.
The following is the report of the speech by Wilford Woodruff:
The Prophet’s Speech—Politics and Military Organization at Nauvoo.
If the people will give ear a moment, I will address them with a few words in my own defense in relation to my arrest. In the first place, I will state to those that can hear me that I never spent more than six months in Missouri, except while in prison. While I was there, I was at work for the support of my family. I never was a prisoner of war during my stay, for I had nothing to do with war. I never took up a pistol, gun or sword: and the most that has been said on this subject by the Missourians is false. I have been willing to go before any governor, judge, or tribunal where justice would be done, and have the subject investigated. I could not have committed treason in that state while I resided there, for treason in Missouri consists in levying war against the state or adhering to her enemies. Missouri was at peace, and had no enemy that I could adhere to, had I been disposed; and I did not make war, as I had no command or authority, either civil or military, but only in spiritual matters, as a minister of the gospel.
This people was driven from that state by force of arms, under the exterminating order of Governor Boggs. I have never committed treason. The people know very well I have been a peaceable citizen; but there has been a great hue and cry about Governor Boggs being shot. No crime can be done, but it is laid to me. Here I was again dragged to the United States Court and acquitted on the merits of the case, and now it comes again. But as often as God sees fit for me to suffer, I am ready; but I am as innocent of the crimes alleged against me as the angels in heaven. I am not an enemy to mankind, I am a friend to mankind. I am not an enemy to Missouri, nor to any governor or people.
As to the military station I hold, the cause of my holding it is as follows: When we came here the state required us to bear arms and do military duty according to law; and as the Church had just been driven from the state of Missouri, and robbed of all their property and arms, they were poor and destitute of arms. They were liable to be fined for not doing duty when they had not arms to do it with. They came to me for advice, and I advised them to organize themselves into independent companies and demand arms of the state. This they did. Again: There were many elders having license to preach, which by law exonerated them from military duty; but the officers would not release them on this ground. I then told the Saints that though I was clear from military duty by law, in consequence of lameness in one of my legs, yet I would set them the example and would do duty myself. They then said they were willing to do duty, if they could be formed into an independent company, and I could be at their head. This is the origin of the Nauvoo Legion and of my holding the office of lieutenant-general.
All the power that I desire or have sought to obtain has been the enjoyment of the constitutional privilege for which my fathers shed their blood, of living in peace in the society of my wife and children, and enjoying the society of my friends and that religious liberty which is the right of every American citizen, of worshiping according to the dictates of his conscience and the revelations of God.
With regard to elections, some say all the Latter-day Saints vote together, and vote as I say. But I never tell any man how to vote or whom to vote for. But I will show you how we have been situated by bringing a comparison. Should there be a Methodist society here and two candidates running for office, one says, “If you will vote for me and put me in governor, I will exterminate the Methodists, take away their charters,” &c. The other candidate says, “If I am governor, I will give all an equal privilege.” Which would the Methodists vote for? Of course they would vote en masse for the candidate that would give them their rights.
Thus it has been with us. Joseph Duncan said if the people would elect him he would exterminate the Mormons, and take away their charters. As to Mr. Ford, he made no such threats, but manifested a spirit in his speeches to give every man his rights; hence the members of the Church universally voted for Mr. Ford and he was elected governor. But he has issued writs against me the first time the Missourians made a demand for me, and this is the second one he has issued for me, which has caused me much trouble and expense.
President Smith also rehearsed the account of his being taken by Reynolds and Wilson, and the unlawful treatment he received at their hands.
The multitude gave good attention and much prejudice seemed to he removed.
Three steamers arrived in the afternoon; one from St. Louis, one from Quincy and one from Burlington, bringing from eight hundred to a thousand ladies and gentlemen. On the arrival of each boat, the people were escorted by the Nauvoo band to convenient seats provided for them, and were welcomed by the firing of cannon, which brought to our minds the last words of the patriot Jefferson, “Let this day be celebrated by the firing of cannon,” &c. The visitors and Saints appeared to be highly gratified.
A collection was taken in the morning to assist Elder Hyde to build his house; and in the afternoon Elder Hyde on his own responsibility, proposed a collection to assist me in bearing the expenses of my persecution.
The meeting closed about 7 p.m. The day was pleasant, sky clear, and nothing tended to disturb the peace.
I extract from the Quincy Whig.
Report of the Fourth of July Celebration at Nauvoo—The Quincy Whig.
I left Quincy on the glorious Fourth, on board the splendid steamer Annawan Captain Whitney, in company with a large number of ladies and gentlemen of this city, on a pleasure excursion to the far-famed city of Nauvoo. The kindness of the officers of the boat and the hearty welcome received from the citizens of Nauvoo on our arrival there, induced me to return to each and all of them my own and the thanks of every passenger on board the Annawan, and I am sure all alike feel grateful for the pleasure they experienced. We left Quincy at half-past eight, and reached Nauvoo at about two o’clock p.m., where we received an invitation from the Prophet to attend the delivering of an oration, which was accepted; and two companies of the Legion were sent to escort us to the Grove (on the hill near the Temple), where the oration was to be delivered. When we reached the brow of the hill, we received a salute from the artillery there stationed, and proceeded on to the Grove, where we were welcomed in a cordial and happy manner by the Prophet and his people.
The large concourse of people assembled to celebrate the day which gave birth to American independence, convinced me that the Mormons have been most grossly slandered, and that they respect, cherish and love the free institutions of our country, and appreciate the sacrifice and bloodshed of those patriots who established them. I never saw a more orderly, gentlemanly and hospitable people than the Mormons, nor a more interesting population, as the stirring appearance of their city indicates. Nauvoo is destined to be, under the influence and enterprise of such citizens as it now contains, and her natural advantages, a populous, wealthy and manufacturing city.
The services of the day were opened by a chaste and appropriate prayer by an Elder whose name I do not know, which was followed by rich strains of vocal and instrumental music. Then followed the oration which was an elegant, eloquent and pathetic one, as much so as I ever heard on a similar occasion.
Wednesday, 5.—I called in the office and heard the testimony of my brother Hyrum before the municipal court read.
Judge Adams and Esquire Southwick returned from Warsaw; found but little excitement there. Esquire Southwick wrote a piece for the Warsaw paper in my defense, and the justice of the decision of the municipal court.
The remainder of the day I was at home.
Thursday 6.—I remained at home all day.
Governor Ford wrote the following letter:
Letter of Governor Ford to Sheriff Reynolds Replying to a Petition for Military force to Re-arrest the Prophet.
Springfield, July 6, 1843.
Joseph H. Reynolds, Esq.:
Sir:—I have received your petition for a detachment of Illinois Militia to assist you in retaking Joseph Smith, Junior, representing him to have escaped from your custody after having been arrested on a warrant granted for his apprehension. I have also received a remonstrance and some affidavits adverse to the prayer of your petition. I have also to inform you that I had heard, before your arrival in this city, of the escape of Smith, and rumors that he had been rescued by a military force. Deeming these remarks of sufficient importance to justify me in so doing, I did, on the 4th day of this present month, dispatch a trusty and competent person as my agent to collect information of the various matters contained in your petition; and you will, I hope, at once see the propriety of all action being suspended on my part until I can receive the most authentic and unquestionable information as to the movements complained of.
I am, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
And endorsed on the back of it:
Mr. Backenstos:—The annexed letter to Joseph H. Reynolds is all the answer which I can at present make to either of the parties touching his application for a detachment of militia to assist him in retaking Joseph Smith, said to be a fugitive from justice.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Friday, 7.—Mr. Braman, a messenger from the governor, arrived in Nauvoo, requesting a copy of all the testimony that was given before the municipal court and other affidavits concerning the expulsion of the Mormons from Missouri.
I therefore employed James Sloan, Samuel Gulley, George Walker and Joseph M. Cole, in addition to my other clerks, who sat up all night to copy the testimony.
In addition to the above I made the following affidavit:
Joseph Smith’s Affidavit on the Troubles in Missouri, Sent to Governor Ford.
State Of Illinois,
Hancock County. ss.
Personally appeared before me, Ebenezer Robinson, a notary public within and for said county, Joseph Smith, senior; who being duly sworn, says that in the year 1838 he removed with his family to the state of Missouri; that he purchased land and became a resident of Caldwell county; that he was an elder and teacher of the Church of Latter-day Saints; that the religious society of which he was an elder numbered several thousand people, who were remarkably industrious in their habits, quiet in their manners and conscientious observers of the laws; that they had been for some years prior to his removal thither purchasing and improving lands, and were possessed of a vast amount of property, probably to the amount of $3,500,000 of real and personal estate; that prejudices had for a long time existed in the minds of the rough and uncultured people by whom his people were surrounded, on account of their peculiar religious views and their different habits of life; that in the summer of 1838 the prejudice of the people against the deponent and his associates became great; that while in the peaceful pursuit of their labors upon their own farms, without any violence or aggression on their part, they were frequently attacked by armed mobs, their houses burned, their cattle stolen, their goods burned and wasted, many inoffensive people murdered, whole families driven out and dispersed over the country at inclement seasons, and every barbarity which the ingenuity and malice of mobs could devise inflicted upon them.
These scenes of violence raged unchecked by the civil authorities, and many officers of the state of Missouri were open leaders of the mob and shared in its crimes. The armed militia of the state were arrayed, without authority of law, for the purpose of driving the deponent and his inoffensive people out of the state, or of exterminating them if they should remain within it. (For proof of this fact see the order of Governor Boggs, dated October 27, 1838, sent herewith). That this deponent and his people received notices, warnings and orders from the civil and military officers of Missouri, as well as from mobs who co-operated with them, to leave the state, and were threatened with death if they refused: that this deponent with others was taken prisoner by an armed mob, and oppressed, imprisoned, and carried from place to place, without authority of law. That his whole people, comprising at least 15,000 people, were driven out like wild beasts, that hundreds were murdered by shooting, stabbing and beating, and having their brains beaten out with clubs. Great numbers were starved to death; many died from fatigue and hardship in the fields; women were ravished, children murdered, and every cruelty inflicted. This deponent with his comrades was imprisoned about six months and until nearly aIl his people were driven out of the state; that they were then, by order of the officers of the state, set at liberty and ordered to flee from the state. That, after they were released, they were pursued by armed men, who endeavored to shoot them; and they thus were pursued out of the state, and were in peril of their lives as long as they remained within its limits.
And this deponent says that he never committed any crime against the laws of Missouri; that he never commanded or controlled any military or other force; that he never left the state voluntarily, and hoped to be permitted to enjoy his rights, property and liberty, like other peaceable citizens; but that he was driven out by force directed by the officers and approved by the legislature of Missouri; and that the lands and houses which it’s people had purchased and improved are now in many cases occupied and enjoyed by the very men who composed the mobs who dispossessed them; and he believes that the desire of plunder was one of the inducements which led to the great wrongs which his people have suffered.
And he further says that the recent requisition made upon the governor of Illinois, upon which a warrant for his arrest has been issued, has its origin in the proceedings before recited, in which this deponent, instead of being a “fugitive” from the justice of Missouri, was driven at the point of the bayonet beyond its borders; and that since such expulsion he has not been within the limits of Missouri.
Wherefore he prays that, upon examination of the premises, the governor of Illinois will cause the writ issued by him to be revoked, and this deponent released from further proceedings in the premises.
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 7th day of July, A.D. 1843. Given under my hand and notarial seal, the day and year last written.[L. S.] Ebenezer Robinson,
Hancock County, Illinois. Notary Public.
Also Caleb Baldwin and Alanson Ripley joined me in the following:
State Of Illinois,
Personally came before Ebenezer Robinson, a notary public in and for said county, Caleb Baldwin who being sworn, says that after the arrest of himself and others as mentioned in the foregoing affidavit, he went to Judge Austin A. King, and asked Judge King to grant him a fair trial at law, saying that with the result of such a trial, he would be satisfied. but Judge King answered that “there was no law for the Mormons:” that “they must be exterminated;” that the prisoners, this deponent Smith and others, must die; but that some people, as women and children, would have the privilege of leaving the state, but there was no hope for them.
He told Judge King that his family, composed of helpless females, had been plundered and driven out into the prairie; and asked Judge king what he should do. To which Judge King answered, that if he would renounce his religion and forsake Smith, he would be released and protected. That the same offer was made to the other prisoners; all of whom, however, refused to do so, and were in reply told that they would be put to death.
Alanson Ripley, being in like manner sworn, says that the same offer was made to him by Mr. Birch, the prosecuting attorney, that if he would forsake the Mormons, he should be released and restored to his home, and suffered to remain; to which he returned an answer similar to that of Mr. Baldwin.
Joseph Smith, being in like manner sworn, says that he and Mr. Baldwin were chained together at the time of the conversation above recited by Mr. Baldwin; which conversation he heard, and which is correctly stated above; but that no such offer was made to him, it being understood for certain that he was to be shot.
Sworn to and subscribed before me, this 7th day of July, A.D. 1843. Given under my hand and notarial seal, the day and year last written.[L. S.] Ebenezer Robinson.
Notary Public, Hancock County, Illinois.
Afterwards Caleb Baldwin, Lyman Wight, Parley P. Pratt, Hyrum Smith, James Sloan, Alexander McRae, and Dimick B. Huntington joined me in the following affidavit:
State Of Illinois
Hancock County. ss.
Personally appeared before Ebenezer Robinson, a notary public within and for said county, the undersigned citizens of said county; who, being first duly severally sworn according to law upon said oath, depose and say that the said affiants were citizens and residents of Caldwell county and the adjoining counties in the state of Missouri during the years A.D. 1837, 1838, and a part of A.D. 1839. That said affiants were personally conversant with and sufferers in the scenes and troubles usually denominated the Mormon war in Missouri. That Governor Boggs, the acting executive officer of said state, together with Major-General Atchison and Brigadier-General Doniphan, and also the authorities of the counties within which the Mormons resided, repeatedly by direct and public orders and threats commanded every Mormon in the state, Joseph Smith, their leader included, to leave the state, on peril of being exterminated. That the arrest of said Smith in the month of November, A.D. 1838, was made without authority, color, or pretended sanction of law; said arrest having been made by a mob, by which said Smith, among others, was condemned to be shot; but which said sentence was finally revoked. Said mob, resolving itself into a pretended court of justice without the pretended sanction of law, then and there made out the charges and procured the pretended conviction for the same which are mentioned in the indictment against the said Smith; by virtue of which he, the said Smith, on the requisition of the executive of Missouri, has been recently arrested by the order of his excellency, Thomas Ford, governor of the state of Illinois.
Said affiants further state that they were imprisoned with the said Joseph Smith, when they and the said Smith were delivered into the hands of a guard to be conducted out of the state of Missouri, and by said guard, by the order and direction of the authorities of said counties where said Mormons were arrested and confined, and by order of the governor of the state of Missouri, were set at large, with directions to leave the state without delay. That said Joseph Smith and his affiants were compelled to leave the state for the reasons above mentioned, and would not and did not leave said state for any other cause or reason than that they were ordered and driven from the state of Missouri by the governor and citizens thereof. And further say not.
Parley P. Pratt,
Dimick B. Huntington.
Sworn to before me, and subscribed in my presence, this 7th day of July, A.D. 1843. In testimony whereof, I hereunto set my hand and affix my notarial seal at my office in Nauvoo, this 7th day of July, A.D. 1843.
Notary Public, Hancock County, Illinois. 1
About four p.m. Elders Brigham Young, Wilford Woodruff, George A. Smith and Eli P. Maginn, started on the steamerRapids on their eastern mission.
Saturday, 8.—Municipal Court sat and approved of the copies of the evidence heard on the habeas corpus and revised it for the press. In the afternoon Shadrach Roundy started with the affidavits of Hyrum Smith, Parley P. Pratt, Brigham Young, Lyman Wight, and G. W. Pitkin, to carry to the governor.
Bishop Miller arrived from the Pinery with one hundred and fifty-seven thousand feet of lumber, and seventy thousand shingles for the Temple.
Elders Young, Woodruff, and Smith arrived at St. Louis, and reshipped on board the Lancet for Cincinnati.
1. The affidavits on Missouri troubles supplement those on the same subject published in the Appendix to volume 3 of this work. Taken together they comprise a somewhat exhaustive history of the Latter-day Saints in the state of Missouri.