Communism seemed to offer solutions to the frustrated citizens of postwar Malay, Vietnam, and the Philippines. Setting itself up opposite Western imperialism, Communism became a vehicle for nationalism. It also provided a way for seizing power and encouraging industrialization. Those interested in Communism included students, intellectuals, and the peasant and working classes. The aspects that appealed to each group varied, but all saw Communism as a way to escape from their individual and societal problems.