One surprising aspect of Mormon doctrine is its emphasis on temporal prosperity as well as spiritual salvation. Arrington discusses how his was especially true in the early Church. He states that it is uncertain whether the economic bent of Mormon doctrine was due to current economic philosophies or direct revelation, but either way the early history in the Church of gathering and persecution encouraged its further development. Mormon economic ideals fit under four headings: promotion of economic growth, desire for economic independence, striving for unity and cooperation, and equality of distribution. These ideals are still important in LDS culture, doctrine, and policy.