Volume 2 Chapter 34 | BYU Studies

Volume 2 Chapter 34

 

Chapter 34

Affairs in Zion—Apostasy at Kirtland—Appointment of the British Mission—Its Departure For England.

[Page 481]

Minutes of the High Council at Far West.

Far West, Mo., April 7th.

At a meeting of the Presidency of the Church in Missouri, the High Council, Bishop and counselors, it was resolved that the city plat of Far West retain its present form; and that the alleys be opened by a majority of the owners of each square, or block, when they shall desire it; that the price and sale of the town lots be left to W. W. Phelps, John Whitmer. Edward Partridge, Isaac Morley, and John Corrill; that Jacob Whitmer, Elisha H. Groves, and George M. Hinkle be a building committee of the House of the Lord in this city (Far West); that Jacob Whitmer be received as High Councilor until the arrival of President David Whitmer; also that President David Whitmer, John Whitmer, and W. W. Phelps, superintend the building of the Lord's House, in this city, and receive revelations, visions, etc. concerning said house.

John Corrill, Clerk.

Charge Against Lyman Wight.

David W. Patten preferred a charge against Lyman Wight, for teaching erroneous doctrines, which was investigated by the High Council at Far West, April 24, 1837.

Seymour Brunson, George P. Dykes, and others, testified that Lyman Wight said that we (the Church) were under a telestial law, because God does not whip under a celestial law, therefore He took us (the Church) out of doors to whip us, as a parent took his children out of doors to chastise them; and that the book of Doctrine and Covenants was a telestial law; and the Book of Commandments (a part of revelations printed in Jackson county) was a celestial law.

The Presidency decided, with the approbation of the Council, that Lyman Wight had taught erroneous doctrine, and that he be required to make an acknowledgment to the Council; also that he go and acknowledge to the churches where he had preached such abominable doctrine.

Nathan West, Clerk.

[Page 482]

Complaint against J. M. Patten.

Joshua Fairchild, David Pettigrew, Benjamin Johnson, and Sheffield Daniels entered a complaint against John Patten, for not fulfilling his contracts, or covenants, in consequence of which they were materially injured; which was proved by Lyman Wight and Abigail Daniels, before the High Council at Far West, May 22nd, 1837.

After a long investigation by the Councilors and parties, the Presidency, W. W. Phelps and John Whitmer, [it was decided] that both accuser and accused should be disfellowshiped, if they did not settle their difficulties. Jesse Hitchcock was then cut off from the High Council.

James Emmet, who had previously been disfellowshiped, made satisfaction, and was restored to fellowship; and John Corrill was appointed agent to the Church, and keeper of the Lord's Store House.

Harvey Green, Clerk.

Case of John Patten.

On the 28th of May a charge was preferred by John Corrill and others against John Patten, for not complying with his agreement, which charge being sustained by testimony, the High Council decided that John Patten be disfellowshiped until he make satisfaction.

James Emmet Disfellowshiped.

About this time the Presidency of the Church at Far West called a general meeting of the Church, at which were present the High Council, two of the Twelve Apostles, ten of the Seventies, the Bishop, and one counselor, when it was resolved that we withdraw fellowship from James Emmet, for unwise conduct, until he returns and makes satisfaction.

Action in Relation to the Word of Wisdom.

Resolved unanimously, that we will not fellowship any ordained member who will not, or does not, observe the Word of Wisdom according to its literal reading.

[Page 483]

Literary Firm Sustained.

Resolved unanimously, that we sanction the Literary Firm, and give them our voice and prayers, to manage all the affairs of the same, as far as it concerns this place, according to the revelation in book of Doctrine and Covenants, first edition, published at Kirtland, Ohio, page 152, section 26th, given November, 1831, (current edition, section 70). 1

[Page 484]

Minutes of a High Council held in the Lord's House, in Kirtland, Monday, May 29, 1837, ten o'clock a.m.

Isaac Rogers, Artemas Millet, Abel Lamb, and Harlow Redfield, appeared as complainants against Presidents Frederick G. Williams and David Whitmer, and Elders Parley P. Pratt, Lyman Johnson, and Warren Parrish.

Sidney Rigdon presiding.

Councilors.
John Smith, John Johnson,
Jared Carter, John P. Greene,
Noah Packard, Oliver Granger,
Joseph Kingsbury, Samuel H. Smith,
Joseph Coe, Martin Harris,
Gideon Carter, Willard Woodstock.

President Rigdon then read the following complaint:

"To the Presidency of the Church of Latter-day Saints:

"We, the undersigned, feeling ourselves aggrieved with the conduct of Presidents David Whitmer and Frederick G. Williams, and also with Elders Lyman E. Johnson, Parley P. Pratt, and Warren Parrish, believing that their course for some time past has been injurious to the Church of God, in which they are high officers, we therefore desire that the High Council should be assembled, and we should have an investigation of their behavior, believing it to be unworthy of their high calling—all of which we respectfully submit.

[Page 485]

"Abel Lamb,

"Nathan Haskins,

"Harlow Redfield,

"Artemas Millet,

"Isaac Rogers.

"Kirtland, May, 1837."

Elder Warren Parrish then stated that the declaration just read was not in accordance with the copy which they [the accused] received of the charges preferred against them.

The resolution was then offered and carried, that three speak on a side.

The Council was then opened by prayer, by President Rigdon.

After a short address to the Councilors, by President Rigdon, President Frederick G.Williams arose, and wished to know by what authority he was called before the present Council; that according to the Book of Covenants, he ought to be tried before the Bishop's court.

After some discussion between Presidents Rigdon and Williams, President Rigdon gave his decision that President Williams should be tried before the present Council.

President David Whitmer also objected to being tried before the present Council.

President Williams then expressed a willingness to be tried for his conduct, and if this was the proper tribunal, he would be tried before it, but still thought it was not.

President David Whitmer objected to being tried before the present Council, stating that he thought the instructions in the Book of Covenants showed that this was not the proper authority to try him.

Councilor Greene gave it as his opinion that the present Council was the proper authority to try Presidents Williams and Whitmer.

President Rigdon then submitted the case to the Councilors.

Councilor John Smith then put the question to the Council for decision, in substance as follows: Have the present Council authority, from the Book of Covenants, to try Presidents Williams and Whitmer? A majority of the Council decided that they could not conscientiously proceed to try Presidents Williams and Whitmer, and they were accordingly discharged.

[Page 486]

After one hour's adjournment, the Council sat again at one o'clock p. m. Sidney Rigdon and Oliver Cowdery presiding.

Councilor John Smith stated that he had selected three High Priests to sit in the Council to fill vacancies, and asked the Council if they accepted the selection he had made. Council decided in the affirmative.

On motion of Warren Parrish, the Councilors were directed to sit as they were originally chosen, or according to the form in the book of Doctrine and Covenants as far as possible.

Resolved, that three speak on each side.

Councilor Martin Harris moved that President Frederick G. Williams take a seat with the presidents.

After much discussion as to the propriety of his sitting, motion carried, and President Williams took his seat.

Elder Parley P. Pratt then arose and objected to being tried by President Rigdon or Joseph Smith, Jun., in consequence of their having previously expressed their opinion against him, stating also that he could bring evidence to prove what he then said.

President Rigdon then stated that he had previously expressed his mind respecting the conduct of Elder Pratt, and that he had felt and said that Elder Pratt had done wrong, and he still thought so, and left it with the Council to decide whether, under such circumstances, he should proceed to try the case.

After much discussion between the councilors and parties, President Rigdon said that, under the present circumstances, he could not conscientiously proceed to try the case, and after a few remarks left the stand.

President Oliver Cowdery then said that although he might not be called upon to preside, yet if he should be, he should also be unfit to judge in the case, as he had previously expressed his opinion respecting the conduct of Elder Parley P. Pratt and others, and left the stand.

President Williams then arose and said, that as he had been implicated with the accused, he should be unwilling to preside in the case, and left the stand.

The Council and assembly then dispersed in confusion.

F. W. Cowdery, Clerk.

Transfer of the Messenger and Advocate.

Some time this month, the Messenger and Advocate office and contents were transferred to William Marks, 2 of Portage, Allegheny County, New York, and Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon continued the office, by power of attorney from said Marks.

[Page 487]

Conditions in Kirtland.

At this time the spirit of speculation in lands and property of all kinds, which was so prevalent throughout the whole nation, 3 was taking deep root in the Church. As the fruits of this spirit, evil surmisings, fault-finding, disunion, dissension, and apostasy followed in quick succession, and it seemed as though all the powers of earth and hell were combining their influence in an especial manner to overthrow the Church at once, and make a final end. 4 Other banking institutions refused the "Kirtland Safety Society's" notes. The enemy abroad, and apostates in our midst, united in their schemes, flour and provisions were turned towards other markets, and many became disaffected toward me as though I were the sole cause of those very evils I was most strenuously striving against, and which were actually brought upon us by the brethren not giving heed to my counsel.

[Page 488]

No quorum in the Church was entirely exempt from the influence of those false spirits who are striving against me for the mastery; even some of the Twelve were so far lost to their high and responsible calling, as to begin to take sides, secretly, with the enemy. 5

[Page 489]

The British Mission Projected.

In this state of things, and but a few weeks before the Twelve were expecting to meet in full quorum (some of them having been absent for some time), God revealed to me that something new must be done for the salvation of His Church. And on or about the first of June, 1837, Heber C. Kimball, one of the Twelve, was set apart by the spirit of prophecy and revelation, prayer and laying on of hands, of the First Presidency, to preside over a mission to England, to be the first foreign mission of the Church of Christ in the last days. 6 While we were about ordaining him, Orson Hyde, another of the Twelve, came in, and upon listening to what was passing, his heart melted within him, (for he had begun to drink of the cup filled with the overflowings of speculation), he acknowledged all his faults, asked forgiveness, and offered to accompany President Kimball on his mission to England. His offer was accepted, and he was set apart for that purpose. 7

[Page 490]

Licenses.

Thirty-five Elders', three Priests', two Teachers', and two Deacons' licenses were recorded in the license records in Kirtland, during the quarter ending June 3rd, by Thomas Burdick.

Church Conference in Upper Canada.

On the 10th of June, 1837, a conference of the Church was held at Portland, district of Johnstown, upper Canada, at which Elder John E. Page presided. There were present thirteen Elders, five Priests, eight Teachers, and six Deacons; and there were seven Elders, nine Priests, eleven Teachers and five Deacons ordained. West Bastard, Bedford, Bathurst, North Bathurst, East Bastard, Williamsburg, Leeds, and South Crosby branches were represented at the conference, comprising three hundred members in good standing, and five baptized at conference, total three hundred and five, being the fruits of the labors of Elder John E. Page in the last thirteen months.

[Page 491]

Minutes of a High Council Meeting in Missouri.

At a meeting of the High Council, at the Committee Store, Far West, June 11, 1837, John Whitmer and W. W. Phelps presiding, Resolved by the Council and all present that the building committee be upheld in the mercantile business, by our prayers; that Lyman Wight, Simeon Carter and Elias Higbee be upheld in conducting a leather store; that John Corrill, Isaac Morley, and Calvin Bebee engage in the mercantile business if they choose; that the right of no man shall be infringed upon, to do as he choose according to the law of God and man; and that the above named men shall be upheld in purchasing goods as other men.

It was reported that certain individuals, not of the Church, were desirous, or were about to establish themselves as grocers, retailers of spirituous liquors, and so forth, in Far West, whereupon it was resolved that we will not uphold any man or men to take a partner out of the Church to trade or traffic in this line of business, or sell for any man or men out of the Church, in his name, or on commission.

David W. Patten requested that the Church pay his debts, and take him for security, that he might go forth and preach the Gospel.

Resolved that Elder Patten's request be granted, and that David W. Patten and Thomas B. Marsh, receive each a lot in the town of Far West, free of charge, and that the Bishop, if he approve, give a title.

John Corrill, Clerk.

The Prophet's Instructions to the British Missionaries.

The same evening, [11th of June] while I was engaged in giving some special instructions to Elders Kimball and Hyde, and Priest Joseph Fielding, 8 concerning their mission to England, President Brigham Young came into my house where we were sitting, accompanied by Dr. Willard Richards, who had just returned from a special business mission to New York, Boston, and other eastern cities, on which he started with President Young on the 14th of March—-Dr. Richards having been previously ordained an Elder, viz., on the 6th of March, and President Young having returned from the mission a few days previous. My instructions to the brethren were, when they arrived in England, to adhere closely to the first principles of the Gospel, and remain silent concerning the gathering, the vision, and the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, until such time as the work was fully established, and it should be clearly made manifest by the Spirit to do otherwise.

[Page 492]

Monday, June 12.—I was taken sick, and kept my room, unable to attend to business.

Willard Richards Added to the British Mission.

Elder Willard Richards, having reported his mission, requested the privilege of fulfilling a covenant which he made with President Kimball in January, which was, that he should, agreeable to his desire, accompany the Twelve on their first foreign mission. President Hyrum Smith and Sidney Rigdon granted his petition, laid their hands upon his head, and set him apart for the English mission.

Illness of the Prophet.

Tuesday, 13.—My afflictions continued to increase, and were very severe, insomuch that I was unable to raise my head from my pillow when the brethren called to bid me farewell; and at nine o'clock a. m. Elders Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Willard Richards, and Joseph Fielding, a Priest, a native of Honeydon, England, left Kirtland in company with President Brigham Young and several of the Kirtland brethren and sisters, who continued with them as far as Fairport, on Lake Erie, where the missionaries took a steamer for Buffalo, directing their course for New York City.

[Page 493]

Employment of Supplementary Means for Healing the Sick.

Wednesday, 14.—I continued to grow worse and worse until my sufferings were excruciating, and although in the midst of it all I felt to rejoice in the salvation of Israel's God, yet I found it expedient to call to my assistance those means which a kind Providence had provided for the restoration of the sick, in connection with the ordinances; and Dr. Levi Richards, at my request, administered to me herbs and mild food, and nursed me with all tenderness and attention; and my heavenly Father blessed his administrations to the easing and comforting of my system, for I began to amend in a short time, and in a few days I was able to resume my usual labors.

This is one of the many instances in which I have suddenly been brought from a state of health, to the borders of the grave, and as suddenly restored, for which my heart swells with gratitude to my heavenly Father, and I feel renewedly to dedicate myself and all my powers to His service.

Dastardly Suggestions of Apostates.

While I was thus afflicted, the enemy of all righteousness was suggesting, apostates reporting, and the doubtful believing that my afflictions were sent upon me, because I was in transgression, and had taught the Church things contrary to godliness; but of this the Lord judge between me and them, while I pray my Father to forgive them the wrong they do.

Progress of the British Mission.

The brethren appointed to the mission to England, landed at Buffalo, and went down the canal. While walking on its bank, President Kimball found an iron ring, about one and one-fourth inch diameter, which he presented to Elder Richards, saying, "I will make you a present of this, keep it in remembrance of me, for our friendship shall be as endless as this ring."

[Page 494]

Arrival of British Mission in New York.

The brethren having been disappointed in not receiving funds from Canada, while at Buffalo, Elder Richards left the company at Albany, and in company with President Kimball visited his friends in Richmond, Massachusetts, where they obtained means sufficient to continue their journey; and arrived in New York on the eve of the 22nd of June, where they found Elder Hyde and Brother Fielding, also three brethren from Canada, viz., John Goodson, 9 one of the Seventies, Elder Isaac Russell, 10 and John Snyder, 11 a Priest, who had gone forward to join the mission; and on the 23rd they engaged passage to Liverpool in the second cabin of the merchant ship Garrick.

Kindness of Elijah Fordham.

The brethren found but one member of the Church in the City of New York, viz., Elder Elijah Fordham, who was very attentive, and rendered them assistance according to his means, but they, being short of funds to pay their passage, etc., removed from their lodgings at Mrs. Fordham's (Elder Fordham's sister-in-law), on the 24th, and, hiring a room in an unfurnished store house of Elder Fordham's father, took lodgings on the floor, and ate their bread and drank their water, until they went on shipboard.

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Warning to New York Ministers—Departure for England.

Sunday, 25.—The brethren remained in their lodgings fasting, praying and counciling for the success of the mission, and had a joyful time. In the afternoon two sectarian priests came in to talk and find fault, but they were soon confounded, and left. On the 28th the brethren deposited one of Orson Hyde's "Timely Warnings," in the New York postoffice, for each of the sectarian priests in the city, amounting to some hundreds. They went on board the Garrick on the 29th, and left the dock; on the 30th, lay at anchor in East River; and at 7:30 a. m., on the first of July, were towed out of harbor by a steamer, hoisted sail, and were out of sight of land at 4:30 p. m.

Chapter 34

1. A short time previous to the above recorded actions, viz., in the early part of April preceding, an important meeting of the High council of Zion was convened and before it Presidents W. W. Phelps and John Whitmer (David Whitmer, the President of Zion being absent) were arraigned for some irregularity in their conduct; and as the action of that Council will have an important bearing upon facts which will later appear in the body of this history, I here give in exfenso the minutes of that Council meeting, which continued from the third to the seventh of April.

Minutes of the High Council at Far West.

At a meeting of the High Council in Far West, April 3, 1837, seven of the standing councilors were present. John Murdock was appointed moderator, and Elias Higbee clerk.

Resolved, That the Council request the Presidents W. W. Phelps and John Whitmer to give explanation of the following items:

First—By what authority was this place [Far West] pointed out as a city and [a place for a] house of the Lord, and by whom?

Second—By what authority was a committee appointed and ordained to superintend the building of the House of the Lord?

Third—By what authority was Jacob Whitmer ordained to the High Priesthood?

Fourth—Have two presidents authority to lay out a city, and build a House of God; independent of the counsel of the High Council?

Fifth—By what authority was one of the High Councilors disfellowshiped in the name of the High Council without their knowledge?

Sixth—Has any individual or individuals a right to prefer a charge to the Presidency in Kirtland against any High Councilor, [of this Council] without the knowledge of the Council or [the] individual?

Seventh—Should not the High Council and Bishop of Zion, who are appointed to do business for Zion, receive their inheritance in the care of that city in preference to one who is not particularly called to labor for Zion, or an unbeliever?

Eight—Shall any intelligence relative to the building up of Zion be withheld from the Council of Zion?

Ninth—Are the two presidents entitled to the profits arising from the sale of land, on which the city is to be built in this place, independent of the authorities who have been appointed to labor with them for Zion and have suffered like tribulations with them?

The Council then agreed to invite Presidents W. W. Phelps and John Whitmer, also the Bishop, Edward Partridge, and his counselors; also the two Apostles, Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten, to meet with them on the 5th, inst., that the above named presidents might explain [answer] the foregoing questions and that the subject might be investigated. The Council then adjourned to the 5th at ten o'clock.

Far West, April 5th, 1837.

The Council convened agreeable to adjournment with the aforementioned Presidents, the Bishops and counselors; also the two Apostles. The Council opened by prayer; but previous to proceeding to business the said presidents proposed that the Bishop and his counselors, with the above named Apostles leave the Council; which was objected to by the Council, the Bishop and Apostles. The presidents still insisted on having a private Council in the absence of the Bishop and his counselors and the Apostles. All opposed the two presidents. The Bishops and the two Apostles gave them to understand that they had a right to remain, and that they therefore should remain. President Phelps then said he would dissolve the Council, upon which Thomas B. Marsh declared that if the Council should be dissolved he would prepare a charge against the two presidents, before the Bishop and twelve High Priests. The presidents then said they were willing to let all present remain in the house. The Council then proceeded to the investigation of the above named questions. They were not generally satisfactorily answered, which led the Council and others to strongly rebuke the late improper proceedings of the presidents. David W. Patten spoke against them with apparent indignation; stating that their proceedings had been iniquitous and fraudulent in the extreme, in unrighteously appropriating Church funds to their own enrichment, which had been plainly proven. April 6th was occupied in like discussions. April 7th, Council convened agreeable to appointment. The Bishop and counselors present, also the two Apostles. The above named presidents agreed to give up the town plat of Far West with four eighties on the commons to be disposed of by the High Council, the Bishop and his counselors and the said Apostles. After which, on motion, the Council adjourned. The Council met in Far West to take into consideration the affairs relative to the town plat; at which the Council resolved, (it being agreed by all parties) to make over or that W. W. Phelps and John Whitmer make over, or transfer the town plat with four eighties, which are on the commons, into the hands of the Bishop of Zion; and that the avails arising from the sale of said lands should be appropriated to the benefit and upbuilding of "Poor, Bleeding Zion." In the above resolution, W. W. Phelps and John Whitmer acquiesced. Also resolved that whereas W. W. Phelps and John Whitmer had subscribed $1,000 each to the House of the Lord to be built in this place—which they were before intending to pay out of the avails of the town plat—be considered exempt from paying that subscription."—Far West Record [Ms]. pp. 72, 73.

2. William Marks was born November 15, 1792, in Rutland, Rutland County, Vermont. This is the first mention of his name in the Prophet's narrative, and nothing can be learned of his career previous to this time.

3. As additional evidence that this financial maelstrom in which the "Kirtland Safety Society" met disaster was national and not merely local, I quote here the description of the wide-spread financial panic of 1837, as given in the History of the United States by Alexander H. Stephens: "Soon after Mr. Van Buren became President occurred a great commercial crisis. This was in April, 1837, and was occasioned by a reckless spirit of speculation, which had, for two or three preceding years, been fostered and encouraged by excessive banking, and the consequent expansion of paper currency beyond all the legitimate wants of the country. During the months of March and April of this year the failures in New York City alone amounted to over $100,000,000. The state of affairs became so distressing that petitions were sent to the President from several quarters, and a deputation of merchants and bankers of New York waited upon him in person, and solicited him to defer the immediate collection of duties, for which bonds had been given, and to rescind the treasury orders which had been issued under Jackson's administration, requiring dues to the government to be paid in specie. They also asked that an extra session of Congress should be called to adopt measures of relief. He granted their request so far only as to suspend suits on bonds, which had been given for the collection of duties. In a few days after his response to this deputation was made known in New York, all the banks in that city stopped speciel payments, and their example was soon followed by nearly all the banks in all the states. In this emergency, Mr. Van Buren was compelled to convene an extra session of Congress, to provide for meeting demands on the treasury with legal currency. He accordingly summoned the Twenty-fifth congress to meet at the capitol on the 4th day of September, 1837. The session lasted five or six weeks. In his message to Congress, Mr. Van Buren assigned as the causes of the unhappy condition of the country, the excessive issues of bank paper; the great fire in New York, in December, 1835; the large investments that had been made in unproductive lands, and other speculative enterprises. To meet the exigencies of the treasury, as well as to provide for the public relief, as far as to them seemed proper, Congress passed an act authorizing the issue of treasury notes to the amount of '10,000,000' "—(History of the United States, by Alexander H. Stephens, p. 460).

4. Of the condition of affairs in Kirtland at this time Eliza R. Snow, in her Biography of her brother, the late President Lorenzo Snow, says: "A spirit of speculation had crept into the hearts of some of the Twelve, and nearly, if not every quorum was more or less infected. Most of the Saints were poor, and now prosperity was dawning upon them—the Temple was completed, and in it they had been recipients of marvelous blessings, and many who had been humble and faithful to the performance of every duty—ready to go and come at every call of the Priesthood, were getting haughty in their spirits, and lifted up in the pride of their hearts. As the Saints drank in the love and spirit of the world, the Spirit of the Lord withdrew from their hearts, and they were filled with pride and hatred toward those who maintained their integrity. They linked themselves together in an opposing party—pretended that they constituted the Church, and claimed that the Temple belonged to them, and even attempted to hold it."

5. Among those who were embittered against the Prophet at this time was Elder Parley P. Pratt, and of this incident in his experience he says: About this time, (summer of 1837) after I had returned from Canada, there were jarrings and discords in the Church at Kirtland, and many fell away and became enemies and apostates. There were also envyings, lyings, strifes and divisions, which caused much trouble and sorrow. By such spirits I was also accused, misrepresented and abused. And at one time, I also was overcome by the same spirit in a great measure, and it seemed as if the very powers of darkness which war against the Saints were let loose upon me. But the Lord knew my faith, my zeal, my integrity of purpose, and He gave me the victory. I went to Brother Joseph Smith in tears, and, with a broken heart and contrite spirit, confessed wherein I had erred in spirit, murmured, or done or said amiss. He frankly forgave me, prayed for me and blessed me. Thus, by experience, I learned more fully to discern and to contrast the two spirits, and to resist the one and cleave to the other. And, being tempted in all points, even as others, I learned how to bear with, and excuse, and succor those who are tempted."—(Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, pp. 183-4).

In the midst of these troubles there were reputations made as well as some lost. Among those who were developed rather than destroyed by the troubles and temptations of these times was the late President John Taylor. Referring to a visit which Elder Taylor made to Kirtland in the spring of 1837 his Biography states: "At that time there was a bitter spirit of apostasy rife in Kirtland. A number in the quorum of the Twelve were disaffected toward the Prophet, and the Church seemed on the point of disintegration. Among others, Parley P. Pratt was floundering in darkness, and coming to Elder Taylor told him of some things wherein he considered the Prophet Joseph in error. To his remarks Elder Taylor replied: 'I am surprised to hear you speak so, Brother Parley. Before you left Canada you bore a strong testimony to Joseph Smith being a Prophet of God, and to the truth of the work he has inaugurated; and you said you knew these things by revelation, and the gift of the Holy Ghost. You gave to me a strict charge to the effect that though you or an angel from heaven was to declare anything else I was not to believe it. Now Brother Parley, it is not man that I am following, but the Lord. The principles you taught me led me to Him, and I now have the same testimony that you then rejoiced in. If the work was true six months ago, it is true today; if Joseph was then a Prophet, he is now a Prophet.' To the honor of Elder Pratt, be it said, he sought no further to lead Elder Taylor astray; nor did he use much argument in the first place. 'He and many others,' says Elder Taylor, 'were passing under a dark cloud; he soon made all right with the Prophet Joseph, and was restored to full fellowship.' It was about this time that Elder Taylor first came prominently before the Church. The apostates met frequently in the Temple, and on one of those occasions, on a Sunday—the Prophet Joseph was absent—Warren Parrish made a violent attack upon the character of the Prophet, in which he was warmly sustained by many of those present. Towards the close of the meeting, Elder Taylor asked the privilege of speaking. It was granted him. He referred, in opening his remarks, to the ancient Israelites, and to their murmurings against God and Moses, and then asked: 'From whence do we get our intelligence, and knowledge of the laws, ordinances and doctrines of the kingdom of God? Who understood even the first principles of the doctrines of Christ? Who in the Christian world taught them? If we, with our learning and intelligence, could not find out the first principles, which was the case with myself and millions of others, how can we find out the mysteries of the kingdom? It was Joseph Smith, under the Almighty, who developed the first principles, and to him we must look for further instructions. If the spirit which he manifests does not bring blessings, I am very much afraid that the one manifested by those who have spoken, will not be very likely to secure them. The children of Israel, formerly, after seeing the power of God manifested in their midst, fell into rebellion and idolatry, and there is certainly very great danger of our 'doing the same thing.' While the apostates were neither convinced nor silenced by the remarks of Elder Taylor, the faithful Saints were strengthened, and saw in that fearless defender of the Prophet, a champion of innocence and truth. While on his part, in commenting on this circumstance, Elder Taylor remarks: 'I was pained on the one hand to witness the hard feelings and severe expressions of apostates; while on the other, I rejoiced to see the firmness, faith, integrity and joy of the faithful.' "—(Life of John Taylor, pp. 39, 40, 41.)

6. Of this call of Heber C. Kimball to the Presidency of the British mission his biographer (Bishop O. F. Whitney, his grandson) gives the following account:

"On Sunday, the 4th day of June, 1837," says Heber C. Kimball, "the Prophet Joseph came to me, while I was seated in front of the stand, above the sacrament table, on the Melchisedek side of the Temple, in Kirtland, and whispering to me, said, 'Brother Heber, the Spirit of the Lord has whispered to me: Let my servant Heber go to England and proclaim my Gospel, and open the door of salvation to that nation.' " The thought was overpowering. He had been surprised at his call to the Apostleship; now he was overwhelmed. Like Jeremiah he staggered under the weight of his own weakness, exclaiming in self-humiliation: "O, Lord, I am a man of stammering tongue, and altogether unfit for such a work; how can I go to preach in that land, which is so famed throughout Christendom for learning, knowledge and piety; the nursery of religion; and to a people whose intelligence is proverbial! Feeling my weakness to go upon such an errand. I asked the Prophet if Brother Brigham might go with me. He replied that he wanted Brother Brigham to stay with him, for he had something else for him to do. The idea of such a mission was almost more than I could bear up under. I was almost ready to sink under the burden which was placed upon me. However, all these considerations did not deter me from the path of duty; the moment I understood the will of my heavenly Father, I felt a determination to go at all hazards, believing that He would support me by His almighty power, and endow me with every qualification that I needed; and although my family was dear to me, and I should have to leave them almost destitute, I felt that the cause of truth, the Gospel of Christ, outweighed every other consideration."—(Life of Heber C. Kimball, by O. F. Whitney, pp. 116, 117).

7. The British mission was really an outgrowth of the work in Canada. "Several of the Saints in Canada," says Parley P. Pratt, in speaking of his labors there in the early spring of 1837, "were English, who had friends in England. Letters had been sent to them with information of the rise of the Church, and of its principles. Several of the Canadian Elders felt a desire to go on a mission to their friends in that country. At length, Joseph Fielding, Isaac Russell, John Goodson and John Snider, of the Canadian Elders, were selected for a mission to England. Elders Heber C. Kimball and Orson Hyde, of the Quorum of the Twelve, were selected to go at the head of the mission, and Elder Willard Richards was appointed to accompany them."—(Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 183.)

8. Joseph Fielding was born in Honeydon, Bradfordshire, England, and was the son of John and Rachel Fielding. He emigrated from England and located in Upper Canada, near Toronto, in 1832. Together with his two sisters, Mary and Rachel, he received the Gospel under the ministry of Elder Parley P. Pratt in May, 1832, and soon after was ordained a Priest and joined the mission to England as recorded in the text of the history above.

9. Concerning the place and time of the birth of John Goodson nothing can be learned. He was, however, among those whom Elder Parley P. Pratt converted in Upper Canada during his memorable mission in that land.

10. Isaac Russell was born April 13, 1807, in Windy Hall, Cumberland County, England. His father's name was William Russell, and Isaac was the youngest of thirteen children. The family emigrated to America about 1817, settling in Upper Canada. In June, 1829, he married Mary Walton and made his home in Toronto, where he received the Gospel under the ministry of Elder Parley P. Pratt. He was ordained an Elder and engaged in missionary work in Upper Canada until he joined the British mission under the leadership of Elder Heber C. Kimball, as stated in the text.

11. John Snyder was born in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, November 11, 1800. He removed with his father's family to Upper Canada, near Toronto. His father died while John was yet a youth, but under the influence of his mother, a woman of strong character and upright life, young Snyder grew to manhood with strong religious sentiments. In 1833, he joined, with the late President John Taylor, an association of students of the Scriptures who were seeking for a profounder knowledge of the truth. It was to this association that Elder Parley P. Pratt was directed in 1836 and to whom he so frequently preached the Gospel that quite a number of them united with the Church, John Snyder among them. Soon after John Snyder was ordained to the Priesthood and joined the British mission as stated in the text.