27. "They Must Needs Be Chastened and Tried, Even as Abraham"
In 1831, the Saints were instructed to go to Missouri to establish Zion there, but as they settled over the next two years, internal dissension and external persecution caused many problems. In 1834, Joseph and Hyrum Smith organized Zion's Camp and walked hundreds of miles to assist the beleaguered Saints.
A brief overview of Mormon involvement in Missouri from 1831 to 1839. On Zion's Camp, Parkin says:
"After the Missouri governor promised militia assistance, about 200 Saints marched from Ohio to Missouri to escort the exiles back to their homes. This paramilitary relief party was known as Zion's Camp. But reports of the camp's coming mobilized anti-Mormons throughout Missouri's western counties, and when it arrived in Missouri, it encountered hundreds of armed adversaries. The promised military assistance from the governor was not forthcoming, and the camp disbanded in June 1834 without crossing into Jackson County. The revelation disbanding Zion's Camp declared that, because the Saints had not been blameless and must yet learn much, their anticipated Zion would not be redeemed for 'many days' (D&C 105:2-10, 37)."
"The year 1833 brought numerous new challenges to the Church in Jackson County. Some members circumvented appointed leaders and ignored their authority to preside. Others tried to obtain property through means other than the revealed laws. Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon had visited the area in the spring of 1832, but now there arose a general concern among Missouri Latter-day Saints that their Prophet should move permanently from Ohio to the new Zion. Additionally, there were petty jealousies, covetousness, and general neglect in keeping the commandments. None of this helped the newcomers to cope with the worst problem--increasing hostility with the "old settlers" of Jackson County. As the LDS population in the county reached twelve hundred by the summer of 1833, concerns of the local citizens reached fever pitch. It did not help that some members unwisely boasted that nonmembers would be driven from the county."
Reviews the history of Zion's Camp, and then asks if the expedition was a success or a failure. Baugh writes, "Some members of Zion's Camp subsequently apostatized because they fully expected they would fight, while others lost faith because the Missouri Saints were not restored to their homes and property; hence "Zion was not redeemed." In short, there were some then and there are some today who may view the 1834 march to western Missouri as a failure. Yet Zion's Camp was successful in many ways: (1) by responding to the call, the Saints in Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, and Michigan demonstrated their loyalty to God and His Prophet and their love for members of the Church living in Missouri; (2) while in Missouri the Prophet organized the Missouri Stake, further strengthening the Church; (3) most important, for those who demonstrated their steadfastness, this trial of faith prepared them for future leadership roles."
On April 21, 1834, Hyrum Smith and Lyman Wight set out from Kirtland, Ohio, for Pontiac, Michigan, to recruit volunteers for the march of Zion's Camp. Their objective was to lead their recruits on a six-hundred-mile march to a prearranged rendezvous with Joseph Smith's Kirtland division in Missouri. Typically, scholarly treatments have overlooked the Hyrum Smith-Lyman Wight division of Zion's Camp. Yet Hyrum's group, when compared with Joseph's command, demonstrated a similarly significant commitment to addressing the needs of their fellow Saints in Missouri. In addition, a study of this division offers new and insightful details about the recruitment, organization, and march of this ecclesiastical militia. Included in this article is a transcription of the journal of the Pontiac Branch kept by Elijah Fordham. The day-by-day account of the march from Michigan to the Salt River in Missouri is contained in thirty-eight illuminating journal entries.
"We Also Marched: The Women and Children of Zion's Camp, 1834," Andrea G. Radke-Moss, BYU Studies, Vol. 39, no. 1
Much like the women of the Mormon Battalion and other military expeditions, the Zion's Camp women contributed in various ways to the overall character of the group and its success and helped prepare for later mass migrations to the West. The women helped with the traditional domestic duties of cooking and laundering and caring for children. They also provided a civilizing influence on the camp. This article tells the stories of twelve women and several children known to have traveled with the more than 200 men of Zion's Camp. Also, a woman (Ruth Vose) made the largest financial contribution to the funding of the march.
Enduring in Spite of Adversity and Building Zion Today
"Behind the Iron Curtain: Recollections of Latter-day Saints in East Germany, 1945-1989," Garold N. Davis, Norma S. Davis, BYU Studies, Vol. 35, no. 1
Saints in East Germany patiently waited for decades as their religious activity was severely restricted.