Mormonism and the Germans

An Annotated Bibliography, 1848–1966


It is easy, but unjustifiable for the American student of Mormonism to forget that the Latter-day Saints have also attracted the attention of scholars and writers outside of the English-speaking world, many of whose works are worthy of serious consideration. Although I have found no German commentator on the Latter-day Saints who writes with the keen perception of a de Tocqueville, the bibliography below does contain works, some written by outstanding scholars, whose unique perspective should not be ignored by the serious student of Mormonism.

The following bibliography has been compiled chiefly from the resources of the Göttingen University Library. The card catalogs of the New York Public Library and the Princeton University Library were also used.

My principal source of book titles has been the national bibliographies by Kayser and Hinrichs, the Deutsches Bücherverzeichnis, and the Deutsche Bibliographie. Using these standard works in combination, one can obtain bibliographical data on most books published in the German language since 1750. Subject-matter indexes were not included between 1832 and 1891, so I may have missed some books (especially fiction that did not include the word “Mormon” in the title) from this period if they were not important enough to have been included in other bibliographies, such as the standard theological bibliographies, the bibliographies included in many of the separate studies, or the Catalog of the Yale Collection of Western Americana.

Dietrich’s Bibliographie der deutschsprachigen Zeitschriftenliteratur has cataloged the articles of Germany’s most important periodicals since 1861. Between 1909 and 1944 a number of important newspapers were also included. Germany has long had an active sensationalistic press, and numerous articles and stories about the Church must have appeared in Germany’s tabloids, slicks, and pulps, which would neither be cataloged by standard bibliographies nor preserved by even the largest libraries. The Presiding Bishopric’s Office in Frankfurt am Main has a large file of such material, which has been collected rather haphazardly since about 1952 and systematically (with the assistance of newspaper clipping services) since 1966. The press has given wide publicity to the deviant or criminal behavior of wayward Mormons and has capitalized on such scandals as the polygamous colony at Short Creek, Arizona. On the other hand, the Church has received much favorable newspaper publicity from the Tabernacle Choir’s European tour in 1955, concerts and exhibitions by Brigham Young University and mission groups, and the Utah Symphony Orchestra’s European concert tour in 1966. And famous Mormons, especially if they visit Germany, are frequently given good publicity. Leading this list is Elder Ezra Taft Benson. Other Mormons who have attracted the attention of the German press include Ivy Baker Priest, Gent Fullmer, Alice Buehner, and George Romney.

Since 1964 the Church’s newspaper publicity in Germany has mushroomed. In this year Elder Ezra Taft Benson organized the European Information Service, the public-relations arm of the Church in the German-speaking countries and Italy. Largely through the efforts of this organization, virtually every move the Church makes in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland is given newspaper publicity. In 1966 the Information Service collected an average of 310 column inches per month, less than ten percent of which was judged to be strongly antagonistic. The bulk of this coverage has been of local events and in local newspapers, for which reason I have made no attempt to catalog it.

Other forms of mass media are still harder to catalog than the daily press. Mormons have been occasionally mentioned in German motion pictures (usually with a humorous reference to polygamy), but to my knowledge the Church has played an important role only in Edgar Reitz’s Mahlzeiten (1967), in which the leading couple is converted to Mormonism. The film is of special interest because the missionary parts are played by actual Mormon elders. There is also a Mormon comedy presently (1967) being played on German stages, Wind in den Zweigen des Sassafras by René de Obaldia, translated from French by Eugen Helmlé. But there is little Mormon about Obaldia’s crude but lovable pioneers, and the fact that they are Mormons is mentioned so fleetingly that most theater visitors will not be aware of it.

Translations of English-language publications have not been included in the present bibliography, and there have been many, especially in Mormon fiction. Nor have the voluminous official Church publications been included, virtually all of which are translations of American works.

For further research outside of the Anglo-American sphere, M. H. A. van der Valk’s De Profeet der Mormonen Joseph Smith Jr. (Kampen, 1921) contains a bibliography with over 1,400 items, including many titles in German, French, Dutch, and Scandinavian, as well as English.


Ziegler, Alexander. Skizzen einer Reise durch Nordamerika und Westindien . . . , Dresden and Leipzig, Mormons: II, 60–66.

A first-hand account of the Mormon exodus from Nauvoo in September 1846.


Busch, Moritz. “Die Heiligen vom jungsten Tage,” Wanderungen zwischen Hudson und Mississippi 1851 und 1852, Stuttgart and Tübingen, II, 1–82.

An objective account of Mormonism and its background in Yankee America by a well-known German journalist who also authored two important books about Bismark. Busch ends this chapter of his American travel narrative with the statement: “Whatever the miracles of their apostles and prophets may be, Mormonism itself is one of the greatest miracles of the nineteenth century.” (p. 82)


Busch, Moritz. Die Mormonen: Ihr Prophet, ihr Staat und ihr Glaube, Leipzig, 158 pp.

An enlargement of the above treatment. Busch accepts the Spaulding Manuscript theory, as do nearly all German writers (even to the present day). He devotes considerable space to polygamy and includes the Mormon defense, and he mentions many fruits of Mormonism, “which are by no means all bad.” (p. 5)


Olshausen, Theodor. Geschicte der Mormonen oder Jüngsten-Tages-Heiligen in Nordamerika, Göttingen, iv + 244 pp.

A relatively unpartisan overall treatment by an editor and publisher of German-language newspapers in Missouri and Iowa from 1851 to 1865.


Möllhausen, Heinrich Balduin. Tagebuch einer Reise vom Mississippi nach den Küsten der Südsee, introd. Alexander von Humboldt, Leipzig, Mormons: pp. 435–440; 2nd ed.: Wanderungen durch die Prairien und Wüsten des westlichen Nordamerika . . . , Leipzig, 1860.

An illustrated account of the Whipple Expedition, of which Möllhausen was a member. The information for his factual, but unsympathetic excursus on the Mormons was gleaned from the reports of John W. Gunnison and Howard Stansbury and from first-hand contact with Mormon pioneers on the upper Missouri River. An English version appeared under the title Diary of a Journey from the Mississippi to the Coasts of the Pacific with a United States Government Expedition, trans. Mrs. Percy Sinnett, London, 1858.


Andree, Karl. “Die Mormonen und ihr Land am großen Salzsee,” Geographische Wanderungen, Dresden, II, 1–31.

A reprint of articles which appeared originally in the periodical Das Westland, I–V (1852–1853). Although Andree presents in the main an accurate account of Mormon history, his emphasis on polygamy, the Danites, and Mormon “fanaticism” does not form a favorable image of the Latter-day Saints.

Schiel, Jacob H. Reise durch die Felsengebirge und die Humboldtgebirge nach dem stillen Ocean, Schaffhausen, 139 pp.

Schiel, a member of the Gunnison Expedition, spent seven months in Utah in 1853. Roughly one-third of his book is devoted to the Mormons and is one of the bitterest condemnations of the Latter-day Saints ever published in German. A laudable English translation is Journey through the Rocky Mountains and the Humboldt Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, ed., trans. Thomas N. Bonner, Norman, Oklahoma, 1961.


Overbeck, J. Der Mormonismus: Nach mormonischen Quellen, Gotha.


Möllhausen, Heinrich Balduin. Dec Halbindianer: Erzählung aus dem westlichen Nord-Amerika, Leipzig and Jena, 4 vols., 1,118 pp.; republished as late as 1909.

A novel by one of nineteenth-century Germany’s most popular (but now forgotten) novelists. Part of the action takes place in Salt Lake City, and Mormons play minor roles. The sinister image of the Mormon Church painted in Möllhausen’s later novels is entirely missing in this work.

———. Reisen in die Felsengebirge Nord-Amerikas bis zum Hoch-Plateau von Neu Mexico, introd. Alexander von Humboldt, Leipzig, 2 vols., Mormons: I, 362–363, 396–399.

An account of the Ives Colorado Expedition, of which Möllhausen was a member. He tells of Mormon missionary efforts among the Mohave Indians and reveals the party’s distrust and dislike of all Mormons.

“Die Mormonen-Hauptstadt und deren Sultan: Im Mormonenstaat Utah in Nordamerika,” Gartenlaube, pp. 504–506.


Möllhausen, Heinrich Balduin. Der Mayordomo: Erzälung aus dem südlichen Kalifornien und Neu-Mexiko im Anschluß an den “Halbindianer” und “Flüchtling,” Jena, 4 vols., 1004 pp.; republished as late as 1909.

Zimmermann, W. F. A. [Carl Gottfried Wilhelm Vollmer]. Californien und das Goldfieber: Reisen in dem wilden Westen Nord-Amerika’s: Leben und Sitten der Goldgräber, Mormonen und Indianer, Berlin, Mormons: pp. 144–250.

In many respects one of the most complimentary Mormon treatments ever to have appeared in Germany. Vollmer even justifies (or at least refuses to condemn) polygamy: “The members of our party found no immorality [among the Mormons].” (p. 177) Of special interest are his detailed descriptions of Utah industries and mining operations. Although the book is “dedicated to the well educated of the German people,” it is written largely in the style of a pulp novel and is marred by numerous errors.


Möllhausen, Heinrich Balduin. Das Mormonenmädchen: Eine Erzählung aus der Zeit des Kriegszuges der Vereinigten Staaten gegen die “Heiligen der letzten Tage im Jahre 1857–1858, Jena, 6 vols., 893 pp.

A popular novel set in Utah during the Mormon War. The Latter-day Saints are depicted as ruthless fanatics. Although this book received high praise from contemporary literary critics and was republished as late as 1935, it is forgotten today.


“Ein Amerikaner über die Mormonen der Salzseestadt,” Das Ausland, XXXIX, 1086–1088.

A review of Samuel Bowles’ book Across the Continent, Springfield, Massachusetts, and New York, 1865 and 1866. The reviewer condemns polygamy and claims that it is unpopular even among the Mormons. He praises the Salt Lake Theater.

“Aus dem Mormonenstaat,” Gartenlaube, p. 455.


Storch, J. “Das Reich der Mormonen in Amerika,” Illustrierte Zeitung (Leipzig), IL, no. 1265, 207–208.

A tirade against the alleged manipulation and spiritual enslavement of the Mormons by their ruthless leaders. Storch does mention the secular achievements of the Mormons in Utah and gives special praise to the Salt Lake Theater.


“Land und Leute im fernsten Westen: Mormonen,” Über Land und Meer, XIX, 87, 107, 115–118, 312, 327–330, 391, 399.


“Die Krisis unter den Mormonen,” Globus: Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Länder- und Völkerkunde, XVI, 297–299.

A review of an article in the New York Herald, Nov. 5, 1869, telling of the feud between Godbe, Harris (E. L. T. Harrison?), and Brigham Young.

“Wunderliche Heilige: In den Betstunden der Mormonen,” Gartenlaube, p. 25.

“Zustände unter den Mormenen am Großen Salzsee,” Globus: Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Länder- und Völkerkunde, XVI, 9.

A first-hand “exposé” of conditions in Utah. The author claims that Mormon polygamy approaches incest, that Mormons suffer greatly because of their refusal to accept medical aid other than the laying on of hands, and that the Negro cannot enter the Mormon heaven.


Busch, Moritz. “Aus der Geschichte und dem Katechismus der Mormonen,” Daheim, VI, 553–556, 570–572.

———. Geschichte der Mormonen; nebst einer Darstellung ihres Glaubens und ihrer gegenwärtigen, socialen und politischen Verhältnisse, Leipzig, viii + 444 pp.

One of the most comprehensive and best studies of the Mormons to have appeared in German. The approach and tone are similar to the author’s earlier works (1854 and 1855). Busch regrets that Joseph Smith’s full story may never be revealed because of the unreliability of most of the sources. (p. vii)

Greif, Martin. “Die Mormonen in Dublin,” first published in the Wiener Presse; reprinted in Nachgelassene Schriften: Selbsterlebtes, Novellen, Skizzen, Leipzig, 1912, pp. 221–342.

Literarily the best fictional treatment of the Mormons that has been written in German, but also one of the most slanderous. Greif, a prominent German poet, gives us here a fictional account of Mormon agents in Ireland. The novel, written in the style of Edgar Allan Poe, abounds in intrigue, murder, and abduction, all at the hands of Mormon missionaries.

“Mormonen,” Allgemeine Zeitung (Augsburg), pp. 621, 3731.


“Die Mormonen in der Klemme,” Globus: lllustrierte Zeitschrift für Länder- und Völkerkunde, XX, 298–300.

A report of the increasing friction between the United States government and the Latter-day Saints over the question of polygamy.

“Die neueste Gestaltung des Mormonenreiches in Utah,” Das Ausland, XLIV, 783–789.

An account of mining and agriculture in Utah. The author sees in the influx of miners and above all in the completion of the transcontinental railroad the end of Mormondom’s protective isolation and the beginning of the Mormon kingdom’s fall.


Erbach-Erbach, Ernst Graf zu. Reisebriefe aus Amerika, Heidelberg, vii + 452 pp.

Eyth, Max. Amerika, Vol. II of Wanderbuch eines lngenieurs, Heidelberg.

Lindemann, M. “Ein sächsischer Schulmeister im Mormonenlande,” Gartenlaube, p. 794.

Schlagintweit, Robert von. “Utah und die heutigen Mormonen,” Gaea: Natur und Leben, IX, 8–28, 86–93, 148–153, 210–214.

Schleiden, Rudolf. “Utah und die Mormonen,” Allgemeine Zeitung (Augsburg), Feb. 16–19; reprinted in Reise-Erinnerungen aus den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika, New York, 1873, pp. 28–72.

A laudable account by a German diplomat in Washington from 1853 to 1864. Schleiden traveled extensively in America, visiting both Utah and the ruins of Nauvoo. William H. Seward credited him with knowing “more contemporary American history than any other man alive, the Americans not excluded” (Allgemeine Deutsche Biographe, Leipzig, 1908, LIV, 39).


“Bei den Mormonen am Großen Salzsee,” Globus: Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Länder- und Völkerkunde, XXV, 353–357.

An account which praises the Mormons’ accomplishments but condemns polygamy. Special mention is given the Salt Lake Theater and Brigham Young’s alleged attempts to woo the popular actress Fräulein Alexandra.

Hübner, Joseph Alexander Freiherr von. Ein Spaziergang um die Welt, Leipzig, Mormons: I, 91–151; 7th ed., 1891.

A Metternichean Austrian nobleman’s account of his tour of the world capitals. The description of his stay in Utah is little more than a tirade against Brigham Young. The German version is the author’s own translation of the original Promenade autour de monde, Paris, 1873. An English translation A Ramble Round the World appeared in London in 1874. The work appeared in Italian as Passeggiata intorno al mondo, Torino, 1873 and Milano, 1877.

“Mormonen auf der Wanderung,” Globus: Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Länder- und Völkerkunde, XXV, 372–376.

An illustrated account of the Mormon overland migration.

Richter, J. J. Bilder aus den Vereinigten Staaten, Zurich.

Schlagintweit, Robert von. Die Mormonen: Oder, Die Heiligen vom jüngsten Tage von ihrer Entstehung bis auf die Gegenwart, Leipzig, xvi + 292 pp.; 2nd ed. rev., Cologne and Leipzig, 1878.

One of four commendable books on the American West by a noted German geographer.


Busch, Moritz. “Die Mormonen-Bibel,” Gartenlaube, p. 616.


“Der Mormonenstaat in Utah,” Der Katholik, n.s. XLI, 631–663.


Jolss, G. Das Sectenwesen im Kanton Bern, Bern, 77 pp.

Jüngst, Johannes. Die evangelische Kirche und die Separatisten und Sektierer der Gegenwart, Gotha, iii + 60 pp.

“Die Vielweiberei bei den Mormonen,” Das Ausland, LIV, 12–15.

A glowing review of Mrs. Stenhouse’s An Englishwoman in Utah: The Story of a Life’s Experience in Mormonism. London, 1880.


Bodenstedt, Friedrich. “Ein Besuch bei den Mormonen,” Vom Atlantischen zum Stillen Ocean, Leipzig, pp. 387–426.

A popular nineteenth-century German poet’s report of a trip to Salt Lake City in 1880. Bodenstedt’s writing skill and his ability as a sensitive, impartial observer combine to make this account of the Latter-day Saints one of the most laudable ever to have appeared in Germany.

Ehemann, A. “Mormonen in England,” Beilage zur Allgemeinen Zeitung (Munich), p. 1313.


Möllhausen, Heinrich Balduin. Der Fanatiker, Berlin, 3 vols., xi + 764 pp.; republished as late as 1905.

A fictional account of Mormon proselyting activities in Norway and their “tyrannical” rule in Utah.

“Mormonen,” Die neue Zeit: Wochenschrift der deutschen Sozialdemokratie, I, 104.

“Von den Mormonen,” Neue evangelische Kirchenzeitung, cols. 448–449.

A short article which explains the difference between the Utah Mormons and the Reorganized Church, called here the “Kirtland Mormons.”


“Americanische Skizzen: Die Mormonen-Propaganda,” lllustrierte Zeitung (Leipzig), LXXXII, no. 2117, 77–78.

A short general history of the Mormons which praises them for being “among the most industrious, most energetic, and wealthiest citizens of the United States” (p. 77), but criticizes the “despotic religious discipline” (p. 78) which has been forced upon them.

Moltke, A. Freiherr von. “Lage und Aussicht des Mormonismus,” Globus: Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Länder- und Völkerkunde, XLV, 189–191.

An objective account of the legal problems facing the United States government in the “Mormon problem.”


Kündig, J. Was haben wir von den Mormonen zu halten? Basel.

Meyer, Hans. Eine Weltreise: Plaudereien aus einer zweijährigen Erdum segelung, Leipzig, Mormons: pp. 418–423.

The narrative of a trip through Utah in early 1883. Meyer is unimpressed with Salt Lake City, rails the practice of polygamy, and calls Brigham Young an “absolute autocrat.” (p. 421)

“Mormonen-Ansiedlung in Mexico,” Deutsche Rundschau für Geographic und Statistik, VII, 520.

An account of Mormon migration to Mexico in an attempt to avoid prosecution under the Edmunds Act.

Poesche, Emma. “Die Mormonen,” Deutsche Rundschau für Geographic und Statistik, VII, 433–438, 440–441, 487–493.

A sympathetic, well-written account of life among the Mormons.


Cronau, Rudolf. “Unter den Mormonen,” Jahresbericht des Frankfurter Vereins für Geographic und Statistik, L, 66–68.

Minutes of a lecture delivered at a meeting of the Frankfurter Verein in 1885, in which Cronau describes the Latter-day Saints and their achievements in the most glowing terms. He attributes the persecution of the Mormons solely to the jealousy of their neighbors, and even sees some good in polygamy, namely the abolishment of spinsterhood.

[Grünwald-Zerkovitz, Sidonie]. Die Lieder der Mormonin, Leipzig. 5th ed., Berlin, 1889.

An anonymous cycle of poems depicting the sad lot of a polygamous Mormon woman. In addition to favorable reviews, the collection received publicity for its novel appearance; the poems were printed on a long strip of paper, which was rolled onto two ornately turned wooden staves.

“Mormonen-Stadt,” Beitragzur Geschichte, Landes- und Volkskunde der Altmark, p. 2761.


May, Karl. “Der Geist der Llano estakata,” Der Gute Kamerad (Stuttgart), II, 19–52 (first installment). Later incorporated into the novel Unter Geiern, which has been republished as recently as 1952 in Vienna and Heidelberg.

May is one of Germany’s most enigmatic writers. His approximately thirty-five novels of Western adventure are still popular today, more than fifty years after the author’s death, although no one now takes seriously his oft-repeated claim that the fantastic adventures recorded in his books were personal experiences. May frequently mentions the Mormons in his adventure stories. An important episode of Unter Geiern (which has recently been made into a popular film) is provided by the crimes of robbery and murder of a Mormon missionary.


Fernhagel, D. T. Die Wahrheit über das Mormonenthum: Blätter aus Utah, Zurich, iv + 112 pp.

A rather clumsy “exposé” by an angry churchman, written in Salt Lake City in 1888. An example of Fernhagel’s logic: He sees in Joseph Smith’s changing his story from gold plates to brass plates a stroke of genius, as materialistic Americans would not long let gold plates remain hidden. (p. 13)


Anderlind, L. “Feldbewässerung der Mormonen in Utah,” Wiener landwirtschaftliche Zeitung, XL, 394.

Fotsch, W. “Zur Kenntnis der Mormonen,” Denkwürdigkeiten aus der neuen Welt, Bremen, II, 126–251.


“Aufhebung der Polygamie bei den Mormonen,” Deutsche Rundschau für Geographic und Statistik, XIII, 88.

A short notice of the Manifesto and its political results.

Dalton, H. “Bei den Mormonen in Salzseestadt,” Daheim, XXVII, 59, 76.


Streng. Eine Reise in das Land der Mormonen (XXIX. Bericht der Oberhessischen Gesellschaft für Natur- and Heilkunde zu Gießen).

An account of a trip to Utah by a German geologist. Streng praises the Mormons and their city in the most flattering terms.


May, Karl. “Die Felsenburg,” Deutscher Hausschatz (Regensburg), XX, 1–52 (first installment). Republished in book form as recently as 1952 in Vienna and Heidelberg.

A still-popular novel, whose plot is provided by Mormon Harry Melton’s attempts to force a group of immigrants to perform slave labor in a quicksilver mine.


Walther, J. “Grosser Salzsee und die Mormonen,” Jahresbericht des FrankfurterVereins für Geographie und Statistik, LVII–LIX ( 1892–1895), 33.


“Die Mormonen und die Aufnahme des Territoriums Utah in den Verband der Vereinigten Staaten,” lllustrierte Zeitung (Leipzig), CVII, no. 2772, 195–196.

A news article reporting Utah’s admission into the Union. The Mormons’ achievements are described in superlatives—the Salt Lake Temple as “the most beautiful church on the American continent” and Utah as the western state with the “highest standard of living.” (p. 196)

Oppenheimer, Franz. Die Siedlungsgenossenschaft, Leipzig.


“Mormonenjubiläums-Becher,” lllustrierte Zeitung (Leipzig), CIX, no. 2822, 156.

A short news article about the fiftieth anniversary of the Saints’ arrival in Utah. The official anniversary cup is the center of the article.

Munzinger, K. “In Stadt und Tempel der Mormonen,” Christliche Welt (Freiburg), XI, cols. 991–996, 1049–51, 1069–72.

The report of a trip to “the mysterious city of the Mormons” (col. 992) in 1895. Munzinger boasts of the Mormons’ achievements: “The Tabernacle is one of the world’s greatest construction wonders.” (col. 1069) But he is unsympathetic toward their beliefs, and gives Mormon polygamy as a proof “that fanatics and visionaries succumb readily to sensuality.” (col. 1049)

“Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Mormonismus,” Adolf Bruells populärwissenschaftliche Monatsblätter zur Belchrung über das Judentum, XVII, no. 8, 204–206.

An unsympathetic general account of Mormonism written for Jewish readers. Contains an accurate synopsis of the Book of Mormon, stressing the fact that the subjects of the book were allegedly members of the House of Israel.


Lemcke, H. “Fahrt nach den Mormonen-Kolonien in Mexiko,” Export (Berlin), Nos. 18–20.

Zaxt, G. “Einige christliche Sekten des 19. Jahrhunderts,” Pädagogisches Archiv und Centralorgan für die Interessen des Realschulwesens, XL, no. 4, 258–264.

Zaxt finds Mormonism to be the most pernicious of all modern sects.


Ende, A. von. “Vom Propheten der Mormonen,” Das neue Jahrhundert (Cologne), Nos. 48, 50.

Oppenheimer, Franz. “Die ‘Utopie’ als Thatsache,” Zeitschrift für Sozialwissenschaft (Berlin), II, 190–202.

An attempt to prove an economic theory by quoting at length from an article by William A. Smythe in the Atlantic Monthly, Nov. 1896. Utah is used as an example of an economic utopia.

Peregrin. “Bei den Heiligen der letzten Tage,” Deutsche Volksstimme: Organ des Bundes der Deutschen Bodenreformer (Berlin), X, 270–276.

A short history of John [sic] Smith and the church which he founded. Four pages of quotations from the German hymnbook, the Doctrine and Covenants, and other Church writings are included.

Williams, J. “The Law of the Book of Mormon,” Kosmodike: Zeitung für den internationalen Rechtsverkehr (Frankfurt am Main), pp. 44–45.


Julien, R. “Das Originalmanuskript der Mormonenbibel,” Leipziger Tageblatt und Anzeiger, no. 511, sect. 8.

Lienhard, Heinrich. Californien unmittelbar vor und nach der Entdeckung des Goldes, Zurich, 318 pp.

An abridged version of the journal of a Swiss pioneer who crossed Utah in 1846. Two English translations which include the Utah section of his journal are From St. Louis to Sutter’s Fort, 1846, trans. and ed. Erwin G. and Elisabeth K. Gudde, Norman, Oklahoma, 1961; and “Journal: July 26–September 8, 1846,” trans. and ed. Dale L. Morgan, Utah Historical Quarterly, XIX (1951), 117–176.

Poesche, Emma. “Neue Kolonien der Mormonen,” Deutsche Rundschau für Geographie und Statistik, XXII, 165–172.

An objective, accurate account telling about the Edmunds Act and the Manifesto and praising the latest Mormon achievements in colonization and irrigation.


Katscher, L. “Neues von den Mormonen,” Universum (Leipzig), XIX, 135–137.

Michaelis, P. W. Wer sind die Heiligen der letzten Tage? Ein aufklärendes Wort über den Mormonismus, 2nd ed., Bielefeld, 23 pp.; 3rd ed.: Die Mormonen: Ein aufklärendes Wort über “Die Heiligen der letzten Tage,” Chemnitz, 1909.

“Mormonen in Deutschland,” Kirchliche Wochenschrift für evangelische Christen (Berlin), no. 49, cols. 776–779.

A short history of Latter-day Saint mission efforts in Germany, together with a sarcastic rebuttal of certain Mormon doctrines. The readers are warned that the Mormons are probably still practicing polygamy and that English hymns are sung in German Sunday schools, thus making conversion to Mormonism both morally objectionable and unpatriotic.

Müller, Hans. “Die Mormonen-Sekte,” Blätter für administrative Praxis (Munich), LII, 219–222.

An interesting article, instructing Bavarian civil authorities how to deal with the Mormon problem. Müller points out that Mormon meetings, with the exception of family groups, are prohibited by law (p. 221), that Mormons can be refused the right to conduct religious services at cemeteries (p. 221), and that any foreign missionary can legally be expelled from Bavaria. (p. 222)

Weller, Gustav A. Falsche Propheten: Ein Wort wider die Mormonen, Barmen, 16 pp.


Cassau, Carl. Die Mormonenbraut: Erzählung, Berlin, 136 pp.

Gerbing, H. A. Die Mormonenlehre im Lichte des Wortes Gottes betrachtet, Neu-Ruppin, 8 pp.

Lemcke, Heinrich. “Fahrt nach den Mormonen-Kolonien in Mexiko,” Koloniale Zeitschrift (Berlin), IV, 123–125, 139–142.

An interesting illustrated article containing a German visitor’s impressions of two Mormon colonies in Mexico, Dublan and Juarez. Lemcke was not only impressed by his hosts, Mr. Pratt and Heinrich Eyring, but also by the accomplishments of the colonists.

Osthaus, F. E. “Bei den Mormonen,” Die Woche (Berlin), no. 36.

Pelt, J. R. van. “Mormonismus,” Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, ed. Albert Hauck, 3rd ed. rev. Leipzig, XIII, 465–478.

A fair, frequently complimentary article in a prestigious German Evangelical encyclopedia.

“Warnung vor den Mormonen,” Hamburgischer Correspondent, Dec. 22.


Kalb, Ernst. Kirchen und Sekten der Gegenwart, Stuttgart; 2nd ed. rev., 1907, Mormons: pp. 564–590.

An Evangelical pastor’s refutation of the sects.


Brentano, H. “Die Heiligen der letzten Tage,” Beilage zur Allgemeinen Zeitung (Munich), no. 256.


Wilson, Albert Edgar. Gemeinwirtschaft und Unternehmungsformen im Mormonenstaat, diss., Leipzig, 38 pp.; reprinted in Jahrbuch für Gesetzgebung, Verwaltung und Volkswirtschaft im Deutschen Reich (Leipzig), XXXI, no. 3, 1003–56.

A dissertation for the University of Berlin which treats Mormon communism, tithing, cooperative irrigation, trade organizations, and capitalistic business ventures.


Dick, P. “Entscheidung der Bundesgerichte in der Mormonen-Angelegenheit,” Schweizer Reformblätter (Bern), no. 37, p. 40.

Glässer, J. Das Geheimnis der Mormonen: Amerikanische Kriminalerzählung, Reutlingen, 95 pp.

A trivial detective novel in which two private detectives are pitted against the “Order of the Golden Lion of Utah,” the secret society of the Mormon leaders. They free a kidnapped girl, uncover numerous other Mormon crimes, and escape to the East.

Das Mormonentum: Die sogenannte Kirche der Heiligen der letzten Tage. Zurich.

Reinhold, Georg. Der alte und der neue Glaube: Ein Beitrag zur Verteidigung des katholischen Christentums gegen seine modernen Gegner, Vienna, xi + 334 pp.; 4th ed. rev., Regensburg. 1924.

Zimmer von Ulbersdorf, G. A. [Gustav Adolf Zimmer]. Unter den Mormonen in Utah: Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der deutchen evangelischen Missionsarbeit, Gütersloh, 130 pp.

A tirade against everything Mormon, written by a German Evangelical pastor and former missionary to the Mormons. His account of the mission founded in Utah in 1902 by the German Evangelical Church to “Christianize” the Mormons is of special interest.


“Die ersten Wiener Mormonen,” Zeit (Vienna), July 23.

“Mormonen-Staat wird aufgelöst,” Hamburger Nachrichten, Nov. 23.


Bornmann, Heinrich. “Die Deutschen im Mormonenkrieg,” Deutsch-amerikanische Geschichtsblätter (Chicago), X, 147–156.

The story of Carl Guth, a member of the all-German Quincy Guard which was dispatched to Nauvoo in the late summer of 1844 by Governor Ford.

“Mormonen-Kirche und Zuckertrust,” Neue Züricher Zeitung, Feb. 24.

Tiburtius, Franziska. “24 Stunden bei den Heiligen der letzten Tage,” Die Frau: Monatsschrift für das gesamte Frauenleben unserer Zeit, XVII, 213–224.

An account of the reception in Salt Lake City of a delegation of seventy-six participants in an international women’s congress in Toronto. Mrs. Tiburtius found the Salt Lake women “very cultivated” (p. 224), but Mormon doctrine ridden by “contradictions” and “absurdities,” but still no more difficult to explain than other religious phenomena of the nineteenth century such as Christian Science and spiritualism. (p. 224) Her twenty-four hours among the Mormons did not allow time for careful research, and her statements are not always accurate. For example, she claims that the victims of the Mountain Meadows Massacre were “apostate families who hadn’t found satisfaction among the Latter-day Saints [and who] wanted to return to the outside world.” (p. 221)

“Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Mormonentums,” Hannoverscher Kourier, July 26.


“Gegen den Mormonismus,” Augsburger Abendzeitung, Oct. 12.

Leonhard, L. “Mormonen in England,” Frankfurter Zeitung, May 2.

Pasztor, A. “Ein Besuch bei dem Mormonen-Papst,” Berliner Morgenpost, Nov. 12.

Zimmer von Ulbersdorf, G. A. [Gustav Adolf Zimmer]. Im Schatten von Mormons Tempel: Erzählungen aus der deutschen evangelischen Mission in Utah, Neukirchen, 112 pp.

“Zustände im Mormonenstaat,” Deutsche Tageszeitung, April 25.


Augstin. “Landwirtschaft im Staate der Mormonen,” Deutsche landwirtschaftliche Presse, no. 12.

“Mormonen-Gefahr in Deutchland,” Nationalzeitung, July 23.

“Mormonen-Gefahr in Deutschland,” Post (Berlin), July 24.

Meyer, Eduard. Ursprung und Geschichte der Mormonen: Mit Exkursen über die Anfänge des Islâms und des Christentums, Halle a. S., vi + 300 pp.

The standard work on Mormonism in the German language, written by a distinguished historian. An English translation Origin and History of the Mormons was published in Salt Lake City in 1961.

Scheurlen, Paul. Die Sekten der Gegenwart, Stuttgart; 3rd ed. rev., 1923, Mormons: pp. 161–174; 4th ed. rev., 1930.

A study of modern sects by an Evangelical pastor. He recognizes Mormonism’s temporal achievements, but still considers it to be “a counterfeit of the religion of Jesus Christ.” (3rd ed., p. 174)

Troeltsch, Ernst. Die Soziallehren der christlichen Kirchen und Gruppen, Tübingen, xvi + 994 pp.


“Basler Mädchen im Mormonen-Land,” Basler Nachrichten, Dec. 10.

Hehnn, Robert. Amerikanische Schlendertage: Eine Reise in das Land der Mormonen und zum Yellowstone-Park, Bremen, Mormons: pp. 34–40.

A German tourist’s impression of Salt Lake City.


Schroeder, Theodore. “Der sexuelle Anteil an der Theologie der Mormonen,” Imago: Zeitschrift für Anwendung der Psychoanalyse auf die Geisteswissenschaften (Vienna), III, 197–204.

An explanation of alleged deviant sexual behavior among Mormons (pederasty, sadism, polygamy, sensualism) through Mormon theology. The journal in which this article appeared was edited by Sigmund Freud.


“Neuer Mormonenbetrug?” Christliche Freiheit (Bonn), XXX, no. 13.


Gröhl, Richard. Die Adventisten und ihre Lehren: Eine Widerlegung der adventistischen Angriffe gegen die katholische Kirche, Breslau, 127 pp.; 2nd ed.: “Die Heiligen der letzten Tage” und die katholische Kirche: Ein Büchlein für Wahrheitssuchende, Habelschwerdt, 1925, 150 pp.


Graf, Paul. Licht oder Irrlicht: Widerlegung der größeren lrrtümer moderner Sekten, Graz.

Keller, A. “Der Schutz der religiösen Minoritäten,” Die Eiche (Munich), X, 145ff.

“Mormonen,” Lehre und Wehre, LXII, 426.

Schröder, Oskar. Die religiöse Schwarmgeisterei in der Gegenwart, M.-Gladbach, 16 pp.


Heinen, Anton. Wie bekämpfen wir die schwarmgeistigen Strömungen der Gegenwart? M.-Gladbach, 15 pp.

Klötzel, C. Z. “Mormonen in Deutschland,” Leipziger Tageblatt, Feb. 23.

Lewis, Henry. Das illustrierte Mississippithal, dargestellt in 80 nach der Natur aufgenommenen Ansichten vom Wasserfalle zu St. Anthony an bis zum Golf von Mexico, Leipzig and Florence.

Includes paintings of Nauvoo.

Valk, M. H. A. van der. Zur Beurteilung des Propheten der Mormonen Joseph Smith jun.: Ägyptologische Phantaslereien des Mormonenpropheten, trans. from Dutch by A. Basedow, Leipzig, viii + 64 pp.

A critical examination of Joseph Smith as a translator. Valk makes no attempt to hide his bias; his principal purpose is “to show that the prophet of the Mormons . . . was not called, led, and instructed by God, but was a servant of sin.” (p. 5) Subjects discussed include the facsimiles of the characters from the gold plates and the illustrations in the book of Abraham. This book is a greatly expanded version of a corresponding section in Valk’s De Profeet der Mormonen Joseph Smith Jr., Kampen, 1921.


Algermissen, Konrad. Christliche Sekten und Kirche Christi, Hannover; 4th ed. rev.: Konfessionskunde: Ein Handbuch der christlichen Kirchen und Sektenkunde der Gegenwart, 1930; 7th ed., 1957, Mormons: pp. 827–842.

A standard Catholic reference work by one of Germany’s leading churchmen. Algermissen recognizes the Mormons’ social and economic achievements, but still finds Mormonism to be “one of the most perverted and most pernicious heresies.” (4th ed., p. 734)

Benoit, Pierre. Der Salzsee, trans. from French (Le Lac Salé) by N. Collin, Berlin, 286 pp. The 1929 edition is entitled Mormonenliehe.

Böni, Josef. Moderne Schwarmgeister, St. Gallen, 148 pp.

Gerardi, Bernhard. Grundsätze und Wege zur Sektenbekämpfung, Wiesbaden.

Holzapfel, P. Heribert. Die Sekten in Deutschland: Dargestellt für das katholische Volk, Regensburg and Munich, 133 pp.

Jungeblut, Rolf. Das gesellschaftliche System der Mormonen, diss., Frankfurt am Main, viii + 115 pp.


Heimbucher, Max. Die neuzeitlichen Sekten, Klagenfurt.

Stocks. “Außenkirchliche Gemeinschaften,” Evangelisches Deutschland: Kirchliche Rundschau, III, 259.


Cohausz, Otto. Katholik, was hast du an den Sekten? Steyl, 32 pp.

Lorenz, Arthur. “Aus dem Lande der Mormonen,” lllustrierte Zeitung (Leipzig), CLXVII, no. 4285, pp. 592–593.

A complimentary general article with eight quality photographic reproductions of scenic attractions in Utah.

Mulert, Hermann. Konfessionskunde: Die christlichen Kirchen und Sekten, Giessen; 2nd ed. rev. Berlin, 1937, xix + 477 pp.

Scheurlen, P. Das kleine Sektenbüchlein, Stuttgart, 80 pp.


Algermissen, Konrad. Die Mormonen oder die Heiligen der letzten Tage, Hannover, 76 pp.; reprinted from Christliche Sekten und Kirche Christi, 1925.

Krawielitzki, Martin. Die Mormonen, Blankenburg, 12 pp.: 2nd ed., 1931.

“Mormonen in Deutschland,” Nationalzeitung (Basel), June 10.

Petrich, Hermann. Unsere Sekten, Freikirchen und Weltanschauungsgesellschaften, Berlin, 291 pp.

Riemer, Martin. Wider die Irrgeister: Ein Sektenbüchlein, Witten, 110 pp.


Brietner, Burghard. Mormonen und Medizinmänner, Vienna, 170 pp.

The author expands a one-day visit to Utah into an entire chapter in this narrative of a trip to America.

———. “Unter den Mormonen,” Neue Freie Presse (Vienna), Sept. 15.

Hensel, Rudolf. Amerika: Aus Tagebuchblättern einer Reise, Leipzig, 288 pp. Also published under the title Die neue Welt: Ein Amerikabuch.

Lothar, Rudolf. “Mormonen,” Welt und Wissen (Berlin), XVI, 74–79.

Scheurlen, Paul. Die Mormonen (“Die Heiligen der letzten Tage”), Stuttgart, 4 pp.

Werner, M. R. “Die Mormonen,” Kölner Tageblatt, March 31.

Wien. Welche Freikirchen, Sekten und außerkirchlichen Gemeinschaften sind im Kirchenkreise Königsberg Pr. tätig? Königsberg, 19 pp.


Busch, Johannes. Das Sektenwesen: Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Ernsten Bibelforscher: Entstehung, Ausbreitung und Hauptirrtümer, sowie Wideregung und Abwehr der modernen Sektiererei, Hildesheim, 359 pp.

A Roman Catholic work against all Christian sects. The Jehovah’s Witnesses are Busch’s principal target but he does not hesitate to throw frequent barbed comments at the Mormons.

“Hundert Jahre Mormonen,” Bund (Bern), April 1.

“Hundert Jahre Mormonentum,” Neue Züricher Zeitung, April 13.

“Die Hundertjahrefeier der Mormonen,” Reichsbote (Berlin), April 30.

“Die Hundertjahrefeier der Mormonen,” Säcsische Staats-Zeitung (Dresden), April 22.

Köhler, Walther. Wesen und Recht der Sekte im religiösen Leben Deutschlands, Berlin, 44 pp.

Salomon, E. “Die Botschaft der Jahrhunderte,” Die Woche, p. 563.

Sild, E. “Die Heiligen der letzten Tage,” Schlesische Zeitung (Breslau), March 26.


Justus. “Vielehe der Mormonen,” Die Aufklärung: Monatsschrift für Sexual- und Lebensreform (Berlin), III, 285.

Rössle, Julius. Aus der Welt des Mormonentums: Ein Beitrag zum Verständnis der “Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der letzten Tage,” Neukirchen, 95 pp.

Sieben Sekten des Verderbens: Eine Warnung für evangelische Christen, 18th ed., Wuppertal-Elberfeld, 32 pp.


“Geschichte und Lehre der Mormonen.” Prager Presse, July 10.

Gröhl, Richard. Die Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der letzten Tage (Mormonen), Hildesheim, 87 pp.

A book written to “protect the Catholic people from Mormon recruiting attempts.” (p. 8)

Koch, Anton. “Sekten in Deutschland,” Stimmen der Zeit: Monatsschrift für das Geistesleben der Gegenwart, CXXII, 194–202.

“Mormonen am Salzsee,” Weser-Zeitung (Bremen), Feb. 9.


Mayer, F. “Mormonen,” Natur und Geist (Dresden), I, 178–182.

Sander, Frank [Otto Neitsch]. Der Mormone oder Die Ranch im Tausend-Quellen-Tal: Roman, Bremen, 350 pp.; 2nd ed., Wildeshausen, 1950.

Leers, J. von. “Norwegen und die Mormonenfrage,” Deutsche Zeitung (Berlin), June 14.


Christen, Kuno. Kirche und Sekten, 2nd ed. rev., Interlaken, 105 pp.


Bousquet, G. H. “Eine wirtschaftliche Theokratie: Mormonenkirche,” Die Auslese: lnternationale Zeitschriftenschau, XII, 1079–83.


Rees, A. C. “Im Lande der Mormonen,” Völkischer Beobachter (Berlin), April 15.


Ponton, Josef. Die Heiligen der letzten Tage: Roman, Stuttgart and Berlin, 515 pp.

Ponton, a prize-winning novelist, depicts here an early-nineteenth-century European sect, which, perhaps coincidentally, shares both its name and certain beliefs (Zionism, adventism, and abstinence from tobacco and alcohol) with the American Latter-day Saints.


Bunzel, U. “Die nebenkirchlichen religiösen Gemeinschaften Schlesiens,” Jahrbuch des Vereins für schlesische Kirchengeschichte (Liegnitz), XXVI, 57–100.


Hutten, Kurt. “Die Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der letzten Tage,” Für Arbeit und Besinnung: Kirchlich-theologische Halbmonatsschrift (Stuttgart), II, 162, 168, 236–239, 254–264.


Mormonen Die Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der letzten Tage, Paris, 17 pp.


Hutten, Kurt. Seher, Grübler, Enthusiasten: Sekten und religiöse Sondergemeinschaften der Gegenwart, Stuttgart; 5th ed. rev., 1958, Mormons: pp. 553–590.

A reasonably accurate, but unsympathetic general account of Mormon history and doctrine in the standard German-language protestant study of religious sects.

“Joseph Smith, Begründer der Mormonen-Religion,” Weltwoche (Zurich), XVIII, no. 894, 5.


“Auch Mormonen leben unter uns,” Christ und Welt, V, no. 39, 14.

A sympathetic portrayal of the Mormon Church in Germany with emphasis on the Latter-day Saints’ missionary activities, which the author suggests are financed by the United States government.

Bertholet, Alfred and Hans Freiherr von Campenhausen. “Mormonen,” Wörterbuch der Religionen, Stuttgart, p. 31.

A short article which has little to say in addition to the statement that Mormonism is “a religious socialist sect of the American ‘Wild West.’”

“Mormonen.” Lexikon des katholischen Lebens, ed. Wendelin Rauch, Freiburg, cols. 818–819.

A short, uncomplimentary article. Example: “Mormon doctrine is primitive polytheism built on a foundation of the materialistic glorification of sexuality. . . . Polygamy is an essential part of their belief.” (col. 819)


Blanke, Fritz. Wer sind die Mormonen? Zurich, 20 pp.; 2nd ed., 1955.

Lautensach, Hermann. Das Mormonenland als Beispiel eines sozialgeographischen Raumes, Bonn, 46 pp.

A superficial, but objective sociological study.

“Lebe wohl, Mormonen,” Der Spiegel, VII, no. 33, 19.

A history of polygamy in the Mormon Church from Joseph Smith to Short Creek, Arizona, written in Der Spiegel’s traditional sarcastic style.

“Die Mormonen,” Kirche und Mann (Gütersloh), VI, no. 2, 5.

Schulte, Walter. Sektierer und Schwarmgeister, psychiatrisch gesehen.


Littel, Franklin H. “Church and Sect: With special reference to Germany,” The Ecumenical Review, VI, no. 3, 262–276.

An important essay on the difference between “church” and “sect” to the German mind. A German translation appeared in Ökumenische Rundschau III, no. 2. Excerpts were printed in Zeitwende, Sept., pp. 631–633.

Meinhold, Peter. “Die Anfänge des amerikanischen Geschichtsbewußtseins,” Saeculum, V, no. 1, 65–86.

Meinhold sees in Mormonism the beginning of American historical consciousness.

Schattenmann, Paul. Prüfet die Geister! Van allerlei Sekten und religiösen Sondergemeinschaften der Gegenwart, Rothenburg, 75 pp.

Siedenschnur, Günther. Kleiner Sektenkatechismus, Gütersloh, 32 pp.

“Die Verheißung bleibt ihnen lebendig: Wird Utah ein Mormonen-Staat bleiben?,” Deutsche Zeitung und Wirtschaftszeitung, IX, no. 65, 3.

Impressions of a German visitor to Salt Lake City with special reference to Mormon economic and political power in Utah.


Blanke, Fritz. Kirchen und Sekten: Führer dutch die religiösen Gruppen der Gegenwart, Zurich, Mormons: p. 91; 3rd ed. rev., 1959.

Eggenberger, Oswald. Wie beurteilt man eine Sekte?, Zurich, 32 pp.

“Die Mormonen,” Orientierung: Katholische Blätter für weltanschauliche Information (Zurich), XIX, 193–195.


Horsley, Andrew Burt. Die Entwicklung und das System des Mormonischen Erziehungsuesens: Voraussetzungen und Leistungen, diss., Münster, iv + 188 pp.

A doctoral dissertation written by a former supervisor of seminary teacher training at Brigham Young University. The first third of this study traces the theological roots of the Mormon philosophy of education. The second third deals with the lives and contributions of three Mormon educators: Karl G. Maeser, John A. Widtsoe, and John T. Wahlquist. The last third examines the Mormons’ (and Utah’s) achievements in education.

Hutten, Kurt. “Warum blühen die Sekten?” Der mündige Christ, ed. Heinrich Giesen, et al., Stuttgart, pp. 327–332.

A protestant theologian’s explanation of the popularity and vitality of various sects, including the Mormons. The sects’ small congregations, their emphasis on the participation of the laity, and their emotional approach to religion (spontaneous testimony bearing, etc.) are significant factors, maintains Hutten, but most important, he claims, is their “ability” to guarantee their adherents salvation.

“Die Mikrofilmarbeit der Genealogischen Gesellschaft tier Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der Letzten Tage,” Der Archivar: Mitteilungsblatt für deutsches Archivwesen (Düsseldorf), XIX, cols. 77–79.

A report, furnished by the Church, of the history and scope of Latter-day Saint microfilming activities.

Schreiber, Hermann, and Georg Schreiber. Mysten, Maurer und Mormonen: Geheimbünde in 4 Jahrtausenden, Vienna, 320 pp.

In spite of the promising title, this volume devotes less than three pages of text to the Mormons, sandwiched within a discussion of the Ku Klux Klan.


Hutten, Kurt, et al. Die Einheit der Kirche und die Sekten, Zollikon-Zurich, 128 pp.

Hutten, Kurt. Die Glaubenswelt des Sektierers: Das Sektentum als antireformatorische Konfession—sein Anspruch und seine Tragödie, Hamburg, 148 pp.

An Evangelical theologian’s attempt to explain the formation and vitality of various Christian sects. The Mormons find frequent mention.

“Mormonen: Ein leerer Tempel,” Materialdienst: Längsschnitt durch die geistigen Strömungen der Fragen der Gegenwart (Stuttgart), XX, 214–215, 275.

Wieser, Gottlob. “Die Mormonen und das amerikanische Sendungsbewußtsein,” Kirchenblatt für die reformierte Schweiz, CXIII, 268–269.


“Mormonen,” Materialdienst: Längsschnitt durch die geistigen Strömungen und Fragen der Gegenwart (Stuttgart), XXI, 105–107, 189–190, 252.

Siedenschnur, G. “Mormonen,” Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon: Kirchlichtheologisches Handwörterbuch, ed. Heinz Brunotte and Otto Weber, Göttingen, II, cols. 1453–55; 2nd ed., 1962.


Bodensieck, Julius. “Mormonism,” Für Kirche und Recht: Festschritt für Johannes Heckel zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. Seigfried Grundmann, Cologne, pp. 304–312.

A survey of Mormon history and doctrine in English. Bodensieck “exposes” Joseph Smith’s moral laxness and devotes considerable space to polygamy, which he claims was caused by “the nomadic life in camps.” (p. 312)

Ingber, Edmundo. “Ein Volk baut seine Lebenskraft auf,” Der Wendepunkt im Leben und Leiden (Erlenbach-Zurich and Frankfurt am Main), XXXVI, 543–546; (1960), 7–10, 48–52, 98–102, 139–143.

Rothenberg, Friedrich Samuel. Christsein heute, Kassel, Mormons: II, 221.

Verderbliche Irrlehren, Witten, 48 pp.


Algermissen, Konrad. “Die Mormonen,” Das Sektenwesen der Gegenwart, Aschaffenburg, pp. 30–47.

A critical treatment by a Roman Catholic authority on Christian sects. Algermissen’s work not only suffers from extreme bias, but also from careless research. Example: “Following the death of the last president, O. McKay, who had taken office in 1945, Henry D. Moyle was elected first president by the ‘quorum of twelve apostles.’” (p. 45)

Eggenberger, O. “Mormonen,” Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Handwörterbuch für Theologie und Religionswissenschaft, 3rd ed. rev., Tübingen, IV, cols. 1138–1141.

A reasonably objective general account.

Heine, E. “Die Mormonen,” Der Lutheraner: Zeitbläitter für evangelischlutherische Gemeinden in Deutchland (Frankfurt am Main), XIV, 71–72.

An attempt to show that certain Mormon teachings are not in harmony with the Bible.

Hutten, Kurt. “Mormonen,” Weltkirchen Lexikon: Handbuch der Ökumene, Stuttgart, cols. 979–980.

A short, uncomplimentary article.

Pietz, Reinhold. Die Authorität der Heiligen Schrift in den Sekten der Gegenwart, Göttingen, Mormons: pp. 8–10, 26–27.

A scholarly study of the position of the Bible in a number of sects.


Bartz, Wilhelm. “Die Mormonen: ‘Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der Letzten Tage,’” Paulinus: Trierer Bistumsblatt, LXXXVII, no. 26, 11, no. 27, 11, no. 28, 11.

Gründler, Johannes. Lexikon der Christlichen Kitchen und Sekten, Vienna, Freiburg, and Basel, Mormons: I, 326–335; II, 1194–95.

One of the most objective general treatments to have appeared in German.


Algermissen, Konrad. “Mormonen,” Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. Josef Höfer and Karl Rahner, 2nd ed. rev., Freiburg, VII, cols. 638–640.

A short general article in the standard German-language Roman Catholic encyclopedia.

Brütsch, Charles. Was haben wir von den Mormonen zu halten? Zurich, 48 pp.

Christiani. “Die Sekte der Mormonen,” Katholischer Digest: Internationale katholische Monatsrundschau, XVI, 830–836.

A Catholic priest’s explanation (with strong traces of Fawn Brodie) of Joseph Smith and of present Mormon vitality. The censure is mild, and there are even a few condescending compliments, but a number of errors mar the article, which first appeared in the French Ecclesia.

Essinger, Helmut. Die Mormonen, Gladbeck/Westfalen, 39 pp.

Hutten, Kurt. “Mormonenmissionare ziehen durchs Land,” Evangelischer Digest (Stuttgart), IV, no. 8, 37–43.

A prominent Evangelical theologian’s attempt to warn European Christians about certain “dark points” (p. 40) which are omitted by the admittedly impressive Mormon missionaries. His most important disclosures: the existence of a Mormon splinter group, which even won the allegiance of the first prophet’s son, and the practice of polygamy, which was given up only under force from the civil government. This article originated in the Sonntagsblatt für die Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche in Bayern.

“Die Mormonen,” Stimmen der Zeit: Monatsschrift für das Geistesleben der Gegenwart (Freiburg im Breisgau), CLXX, 133–135.

An accurate and objective thumbnail sketch of Mormon history and belief, but one which ends on a pessimistic note. The author sees great danger in the development of an influential American messionism.

Spuller, Adele. “Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der letzten Tage,” Der große Entschluß: Monatsschrift für lebendiges Christentum (Vienna), XVII, no. 1, 172–178.


Bartz, Wilhelm. Falsche Propheten: Jehovas Zeugen, die Neuapostolischen, die Siebenten-Tags-Adventisten, die Mormonen (Kirche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der Letzten Tage), 10th ed. rev., Trier, 63 pp.

Apparently the first edition of this book to include a section on the Mormons.

“Das Wachstum der Mormonenkirche,” Kirchenblatt für die reformierte Schweiz, CXIX, 56–157.


Renker, Z. [Ferdinand Krenzer].Unsere Brüder in den Sekten: Die Mormonen, Limburg, 53 pp.


“Glück,” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, March 11.

An essay on happiness written around a personal encounter with Mormon missionaries.


“Um sechs Uhr aus dem Bett: Zweitausend junge Mormonen beim ‘Freud’ Echo 66,’” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Aug. 1.

A report of the Church’s second European youth conference in one of Germany’s most prestigious national newspapers. This event was also given considerable publicity in local newspapers.

About the author(s)

Mr. Ashliman spent 1966–67 in Germany working on his doctoral dissertation, which is nearing completion. He is presently Instructor of German at the University of Pittsburgh.



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